Who was Called the November Criminals?

By Shivank Goel|Updated : September 8th, 2022

The November Criminals were those who supported the Weimar Republic and were mainly socialists, Catholics, and democrats who were thought to be responsible for the Treaty of Versailles. The Versailles Treaty with the Allies was accepted and signed by the Weimar Republic. They were chosen as targets because they were simple to criticize in the conservative nationalist groups.

  • The November Criminals were the German politicians who negotiated and signed the agreement that put an end to World War I in November 1918.
  • Because they believed the German army had the strength to continue fighting, that giving up was treason or crime, and that the British military had not certainly lost on the battlefield, German political opponents dubbed them the November Criminals.
  • Numerous November Criminals served as early resistance leaders and participants in the German Revolution of 1918–1919.
  • A few of them went on to head the Weimar Republic, which would later serve as the framework for Germany's reconstruction following World War II.

The Weimar Republic

From 1918 to 1933, Germany was governed by the Weimar Republic, also known as the German Reich (Deutsches Reich), the first constitutional federal republic in history. As such, it is also known as the German Republic and unofficially declared itself to be so (Deutsche Republik). The city of Weimar, which conducted the constituent assembly that founded the state's government, is where the state's informal name originates. The state was typically referred to in English as "Germany," with the title "Weimar Republic" (which Adolf Hitler coined in 1929) not becoming widely used until the 1930s.

Germany, which had suffered greatly during the First World War (1914–1918), was worn out and made a desperate request for peace. The Weimar Republic was declared on November 9 after the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II, a formal resignation to the Allies, and the realization of impending defeat.

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  • The November Criminals were those who supported the Weimar Republic, primarily Socialists, Catholics, and Democrats. They were convenient targets for criticism by conservative nationalist groups who jestingly referred to them as "November criminals."

  • Germany was governed by the Weimar Republic from 1919 to 1933, from the end of World War I to the establishment of Nazi Germany. It was given the name Weimar after the city where, following the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II, a national parliament established Germany's new government.

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