When did the Partition of Bengal Take Place?

By K Balaji|Updated : January 25th, 2023

The partition of Bengal took place in 1905. The rearrangement divided the predominantly Hindu western portions from the predominantly Muslim eastern areas. It was announced by Lord Curzon, the viceroy of India at the time, on July 19 and put into effect on October 16 of the same year. It was reversed after six years. The nationalists believed that the division represented a threat to Indian nationalism and was an intentional attempt to divide Bengal along religious lines.

Partition of Bengal

Since 1765, Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa states were a unified British Indian province. The province was so big by 1900 that it couldn't be managed by just one government. Despite the protests, the partition was implemented, and the fierce opposition dissipated to establish a terrorist organisation.

Intense violence accompanied Bengal's final division into India in the West and East Pakistan (later Bangladesh) in the east during the partitioning of the subcontinent in 1947. As the partition was based on religion, it also caused rifts between various communities. The impact of the Bengal partition is mentioned below.

  • There were about 80 million people living in the provincial state of Bengal at the time.
  • It includes the Bihar regions that speak Hindi, the Odisha regions that speak Odia, and the Assamese-speaking territory of Assam.
  • In January 1904, the administration proposed a public partition.
  • Henry John Stedman Cotton, the Chief Commissioner of Assam, was against the notion.
  • However, Viceroy Curzon went ahead and divided Bengal on October 16, 1905.
  • The ancient province of Bengal was split into two new provinces: Eastern Bengal and Assam, with Dacca serving as its capital, and Bengal (which includes western Bengal and the provinces of Bihar and Orissa).

Summary:

When did the Partition of Bengal take place?

Bengal was partitioned on 19 July 1905, and it was implemented on 16 October 1905, against the strong objections of Indian nationalists, by Lord Curzon, the British viceroy in India. It marked the beginning of the Indian National Congress' metamorphosis from a pressure group for the middle class to a broad-based national movement. The decision to divide Bengal was mainly taken on the basis of religious grounds.

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