What landforms are created by groundwater?

By Ritesh|Updated : September 7th, 2022

Some sorts of rocks can't show the effects of groundwater's work. However, in calcium carbonate-rich rocks like limestones and dolomites, surface water and groundwater, through the chemical processes of solution and precipitation deposition, create a variety of landforms. Karst topography refers to any limestone or dolomitic terrain exhibiting typical landforms formed by the action of groundwater through the processes of solution and deposition.

Depositional and Erosional Landforms by Groundwater

Landforms created by erosion and deposition are additional features of the karst topography. Pools, sinkholes, and caves are examples of eroded landforms. Stalactites, stalagmites, and pillars are deposited landforms.

Erosive landforms:

  • Pools, sinkholes, laps, and caves.


  • Sinkholes are surface depressions in an area of limestone or chalk terrain.
  • Some sinkholes are filled with soil washed down from nearby slopes, while others are steep excavations.


  • Caves are interconnected underground cavities in bedrock created by the corrosion of circulating groundwater on limestone.
  • They are located near Dehradun in Uttarakhand and Almora in the Kumaon Himalayas.

Depositional forms:

  • Stalactites, stalagmites, and columns.


  • These are the main deposit formations formed in caves in limestone areas.
  • Water containing limestone in solution seeps through the roofs of the caves in the form of a continuous chain of drops.


  • When the remnants of water dripping from the roof of the cavern fall to the floor, it evaporates again, leaving a small deposit of limestone.
  • This deposit grows from the floor of the cavern upwards.
  • These types of deposits are called stalagmites.


What landforms are created by groundwater?

Not all types of rocks can display the effects of groundwater work. However, in calcium carbonate-rich rocks like limestones and dolomites, groundwater and surface water work together to create various landforms through the chemical process of dissolution and precipitation.


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