What is the Difference between Harappan and Mesopotamian Civilizations?

By Shivank Goel|Updated : September 5th, 2022

The difference between a Harappan and a Mesopotamian civilization was that the Harappan civilization was ruled by traders, whereas a king ruled the Mesopotamian civilization. The Harappan civilization is the first ever civilization in the Indian subcontinent with an 'urban culture'. The Harappan civilization was more of a 'matriarchial society', which is evident from the existence of statues of female deities. In contrast, the Mesopotamian civilization was a 'patriarchal society', giving more power to the men.

Differences between Harappan and Mesopotamian Civilizations

Harappan Civilization

Mesopotamian Civilization

People lived in small village areas

People lived in cities and towns

Matriarchial society

Patriarchal society

No special places of worship like temples were found

Temples were built for worship

Ruled by traders

Ruled by a priest-king

Invented measurement and weighing system

Invented the wheel

The trade happened for things like jewelry, cotton, art, and beads.

Traded precious stones

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  • The Harappan civilization was known as the ‘matriarchal society’ as it held women higher than men.

  • The Mesopotamian civilization was ruled by a king.

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