The difference between a Harappan and a Mesopotamian civilization was that the Harappan civilization was ruled by traders, whereas a king ruled the Mesopotamian civilization. The Harappan civilization is the first ever civilization in the Indian subcontinent with an 'urban culture'. The Harappan civilization was more of a 'matriarchial society', which is evident from the existence of statues of female deities. In contrast, the Mesopotamian civilization was a 'patriarchal society', giving more power to the men.
Differences between Harappan and Mesopotamian Civilizations
People lived in small village areas
People lived in cities and towns
No special places of worship like temples were found
Temples were built for worship
Ruled by traders
Ruled by a priest-king
Invented measurement and weighing system
Invented the wheel
The trade happened for things like jewelry, cotton, art, and beads.