What are the Main Causes of the Russian Revolution?

By Shivank Goel|Updated : August 25th, 2022

The 300-year Romanov monarchy ended with the Russian Revolution of 1917, and a communist political structure emerged. The First World War marked the beginning of the Russian Revolution, a period of political and social upheaval in the former Russian Empire. During this time, Russia ended its monarchy and transitioned to a socialist system of governance. We'll examine the main causes of the Russian Revolution in this post.

Main Causes of the Russian Revolution

Russian Revolution's initial uprising was centered in and around the then-capital Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg). The Russian Army had started to mutiny following significant military defeats during the conflict. A single incident didn't bring about the Revolution but was a combination of numerous long-term economic, military, and political developments.

The main causes of the Russian Revolution are as follows:

  • Changes in Society: Russia witnessed a significant population expansion toward the end of the century, and its late and rapid industrialization led to hundreds of thousands of people moving to metropolitan regions for financial reasons. As a result, too many people worked in too small an area, in unsafe conditions, for too little pay.
  • The Tsarina and the War: Tsarina Alexandra assumed leadership after Nicholas' departure. She wasn't well-liked, and as a German princess, she aroused questions about her allegiances. As a result, there were numerous weak and inept men in the government, which led to rumors that she was working with the Germans.
  • The Tsar's Incompetence: Nicholas took command of the army in 1915 and headed for the Eastern Front, hoping to rekindle the men's zeal for battle. He was no longer in a political position and was now in sole command, which made him more personally liable for any military failure. A weaker government was also left in his absence.
  • Impact of the First World War: The First World War resulted in the deaths of nearly 2 million Russian soldiers and numerous military setbacks rather than restoring Russia's reputation.
  • Rasputin and his Influence Over the Tsarina: Rasputin, a mystic and self-proclaimed holy man was a Siberian monk who profoundly impacted Alexandra.
  • Economic Problems: Labor riots and strikes were caused by the enormous need for factory-produced war supplies and labor and by conscription, which removed skilled employees from the cities and replaced them with untrained peasants.
  • Seize of Power: Nicholas sought to return to St. Petersburg to reassert his authority, dismissing this as a temporary situation, but revolutionaries diverted his train to Pskov. He was obliged to surrender since he was helpless and alone.

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  • Russia had less food because of the war with Japan. More hours are worked by employees and compensated less. Hunger strikes resulted from fewer groceries. The daughter of Russia's adversary nation is the king's wife.

  • The Russian Revolution overthrew the oppressive Tsarist regime in Russia. It abolished the Romanov dynasty. It resulted in the founding of the first communist/socialist government in history. The newly elected Soviet government said it was withdrawing from World War One.

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