What are the 5 Stages of Succession?

By meenakshi|Updated : July 29th, 2022

The 5 stages of succession are Nudation, Invasion, Competition and Co-action, Reaction, and Climax or Stabilization. A series of biotic communities develop naturally at the same site, one after the other, till the Climax stage is attained. The development of biotic communities is slow in the starting stages. However, its speed increases gradually in later phases.

Stages of Ecological Succession

Ecological Succession is the process by which the mix of species and habitat changes over time in 5 stages. The stages of Ecological Succession are-

  • Nudation- Nudation is the first stage of succession. It is the formation of a nude or a bare area. It might result from flooding, erosion, landslide, volcanic eruption, or other artificial or natural reasons.
  • Invasion- Invasion is the arrival of the propagules or the reproductive bodies of different organisms that can settle on the bare area. 
  • Competition and Co-action- Competition and Co-action mean that the population of the invasive species increases in number within a limited space.
  • Reaction- Since the organisms grow at a place, the environment molds itself under the organism's influence. It means that the area's temperature, land, water, and soil change. 
  • Stabilization or Climax-The last or the terminal stage of the ecological succession is the Climax or Stabilized stage. In this stage, the terminal or the final communities called the climate community become more stable and remain there for a more extended period of time. For example, Coral reefs, forests, grasslands, etc. 

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FAQs on What are the 5 Stages of Succession?

  • The 5 stages of Succession in successive order are- Nudation, Invasion, Competition and Co-action, Reaction, and Climax or Stabilization. 

  • The final stage of succession is the Climax or Stabilization, where the climax community becomes balanced. During this stage, there is little risk of invasion or interference by other communities. Also, the risk of change to mutating the environment is quite negligible.

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