Examples of Electron Withdrawing Groups
- halogens (F, Cl);
- nitriles CN;
- carbonyls RCOR';
- nitro groups NO2.
The release of electrons into a reaction centre by an electron releasing group, also known as an ERG or electron donating group (EDG), stabilises electron-deficient carbocations.
Examples of groups that release electrons
- alkyl groups;
- alcohol groups;
- amino groups.
The polar effect plus the combined steric effects make up the overall substituent effect.
For the purposes of the NEET examination, it is vital to keep in mind the halogens (F, Cl), nitriles (CN), carbonyls (RCOR), and nitro groups (NO2). Alkyl groups, alcohol groups, and amino groups all provide electrons.
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