Through Champion Study Plan for GATE Civil Engineering(CE) 2022, we are providing very useful basic notes and other important resources on every topic of each subject. These topic-wise notes are useful for the preparation of various upcoming exams like GATE Civil Engineering(CE)/ IES/ BARC/ ISRO/ VIZAG/ DMRC/ SSC-JE/ State Engineering Services examinations and other important upcoming competitive exams.
The article contains fundamental notes on the "Water Treatment Process" topic of the "Environmental Engineering" subject.
Water Treatment Process
Theory of Sedimentation
· Stokes Law
for d < 0.1 mm.
The velocity of the settlement of particle in m/s.
The diameter of the particle in the meter.
SP gravity of the particle
Kinematic viscosity of water in m2/sec.
T = Temperature of water in oC
is in mm/sec.
d is in mm.
Sedimentation Tank : Surface Over flow Rate
12000 to 18000 lit/m2 day for plain sedimentation.
24000 to 30,000 lit/m2/day for sedimentation with coagulation.
(b) Velocity of flow,
(c) Time of horizontal flow, or Detention time
(d) Time of falling through height ‘H’
(e) Detention time,
For plain sedimentation tank → 4 to 8 hours
For sedimentation with coagulation → 2 to 4 hours
of lighter particles (with settling velocity (Vs )less than Vo ) which shall be removed in an ideal settling basin.
(g) % of particle removed
where corresponds to
(h) Detention time ‘t’
for a rectangular tank.
for circular tank
d = Dia. of the tank
H = Vertical depth of wall or side water depth
(j) Scour velocity,
0.04 for uniform granular sand and 0.06 or more for non-uniform (interlocking) sticky material.
Darcy Weisbach friction factor.
= 0.025 to0.03 for settling tanks.
Chemicals used for Coagulation
666 gm of Alum reacts with 48 gm of to give 146 gm of
1 gm of Alum reacts with 0.73 gm of alk. or 0.45 gm of alk.
to give 0.234 gm of Al(OH)3 ppt.
· Chlorinated Copperas :
· Sodium Aluminate
G’ = Temporal mean Velocity gradient (per second).
P = Power dissipated in watts i.e., N-m/s.
V = Volume of raw water to which P is applied in m3.
Dynamic viscosity (N-s/m2).
· Velocity gradient,
· Detention time is 10 to 30 minutes.
· Number of particle collision
A. Slow Sand Filter
· Depth of filter is 2.5 to 3.5 m.
· Plan area of the filter is 100 to 200 m2.
· Design period = 10 years.
· Depth of sand is 90 to 110 cm.
· Frequency of cleaning is 1 to 3 months
· Rate of filtration = 2400 to 4800 lit/m2/day or 100 to 200 lit/m2/hr.
· Efficiency of bacteria removal = 98 to 99%.
· It can not be used if turbidity > 50 ppm.
· It is designed for maximum daily demand.
B. Rapid Sand Filter
N = Number of unit required
Q = Plant capacity in million lit/day (MLD)
· Sand layer depth is 60 to 90 cm.
· of sand is 0.35 to 0.55 mm.
· Depth of tank = 2.5 m to 3.5 m.
· Area = 10 to 80 m2 each unit.
· Rate of filtration 3000 to 6000 lit/m2/hour (slow sand filter × 30)
· Cross-sectional area of Manford = 2 × cross-sectional area of lateral.
· Cross-sectional area of each lateral = 2 to 4 times cross-sectional area of perforations in it.
· Total cross-sectional area of perforation = 0.2% of the total area of 1 filter bed
· 4.5% of filtered water is used as a backwash.
· 30 min. used for backwash.
Hydraulics of Sand Gravity Filters
Frictional head loss through the filter in the meter.
Approach velocity or filtration velocity in m/s.
Depth of filter in meter
Shape factor (for non-spherical particle)
The diameter of sand particles in the meter.
Accelerations due to gravity in m/s2.
Newton’s dray coefficient.
Mass friction of sand particle of dia d.
Hydraulic head loss and expansion of the filter during backwash of RSF
= Head loss through the filter bed required to initiate expansion in the meter.
Unit weight of meter in kN/m3.
Depth of filter bed in the meter.
Submerged unit weight of sand in bed of depth ‘D’
Depth of expanded/fluidized bed in the meter.
The porosity of the expanded fluidized bed.
f = mass fraction of sand of various sizes in the sand (as per sieve analysis0
The porosity of the expanded bed
Backwash velocity in m/s
Setting velocity in m/s.
Disinfection or Sterilization
(i) Treatment with Ozone
(ii) Disinfecting Action of Chlorine
(iii) Doses of Chlorine
(iv) Forms in which chlorine is applied
(a) Free chlorine
(b) Hypochlorites & Bleaching Powder
(d) Chlorine dioxide
Type of Chlorination
(i) Plain chlorination
(iv) Double chlorination
(v) Break point chlorination
(vi) Online Classroom Program chlorination
Test of Chlorine Residual
1. Orthotoulidine test: color – matching method
2. Arsenide ortho-toulodine test – when mineral present in the water sample, Also a color matching method.
3. DPD and chlorotic test (Di-ethyl phenylene diamine): color making method.
4. Starch iodide Test
Methods of Removing Temporary hardness
(ii) Addition of lime
Method of Removing Permanent Hardness
(i) Lime-Soda Process
calcium hardness removed in mg/lit (expressed as
Magnesium hardness removed in mg/lit (expressed as v
Lime added in mg/lit (expressed as
Zeolite or Base Exchange or Cation-Exchange Process for Removing Hardness
Demineralization Process for Removing Hardness
Drinking water specification: IS: 10500, 1992 (Reaffirmed 1993)
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