UPSC GS 2 Syllabus - Download Mains GS 2 Syllabus PDF

By Ritesh|Updated : August 16th, 2022

GS 2 Syllabus is part of the four GS Paper Syllabus in the UPSC Mains Examination. Along with UPSC Mains GS Paper 2, there are eight other papers in the Mains stage of the UPSC Exam. The GS Paper 2 Syllabus consists of Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice, and International relations. Unlike General Studies Paper 1, the questions from UPSC GS 2 Syllabus for UPSC are not direct in nature and require a fair bit of critical thinking to answer the questions. Students need to answer questions by interlinking various aspects, which in a way makes their answers holistic.

The candidate needs to connect the static UPSC GS Paper 2 Syllabus with the current affairs to write a multi-dimensional answer. The article thoroughly covers the GS 2 Mains Syllabus, including detailed subject-wise topics that must be covered for the IAS Exam.

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Table of Content

What is the GS Paper 2 Syllabus for UPSC?

The major subjects covered in GS Paper 2 Syllabus. The UPSC GS Paper 2 is titled Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations, and consists of 250 marks.

The score obtained in this paper is added to the UPSC Marksheet during the UPSC Result.

The Overview of the GS Paper 2 Syllabus includes:

Subjects of GS 2 Syllabus

Sub-topics of the GS Paper 2


Government policies and interventions, Governance, Transparency, Accountability and E-governance applications


Indian Constitution, Features of Indian Constitution, Amendments in Indian Constitution, Provisions and Constitutional and non-constitutional bodies.

International Relations

Bilateral Groupings, Regional and global groupings and Agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests.

Social Justice

Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services, and Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

Official UPSC GS 2 Syllabus

It is clear from the UPSC Mains GS Paper 2 syllabus that the paper broadly covers Governance, Polity, Social Justice, and International relations. To ace GS Paper 2 of the Mains Exam, one needs to know in detail all the topics covered in the subject so that candidates, while writing answers, can interlink and present full-fledged answers.

UPSC GS 2 Syllabus

GS 2 Syllabus for Governance

Governance section under GS 2 Mains Syllabus includes Government Policies & Interventions for Development, Development Processes & the Development Industry, Important Aspects of Governance, Transparency & Accountability and Role of Civil Services in a Democracy.

The detailed coverage of topics is as under:

Government Policies & Interventions in Various Sectors

  • Health, Gender, Education, Poverty, Economic etc

Issues Arising Out of Their Design & Implementation

  • Concerns/Issues
  • Suggestions for Improvement
  • Critical Assessment of Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS)
  • Rationalisation of CSS

Analysis of Main Schemes

  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
  • Smart City
  • Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
  • Digital India
  • Make in India
  • Skill India
  • PM Jan Dhan Yojana
  • Start-up India etc.

Development Processes & the Development Industry

  • Role of Social Capital Organisations
  • Indian Context
  • Classification
  • Provisions for the Third Sector in the Indian Constitution
  • National Policy on the Voluntary Sector 2007

Non-Governmental Organisations

  • Role and Impact of Non-governmental Organizations
  • Issue Areas: Accreditation, Legitimacy & Accountability, Foreign Funding etc.

Self-Help Groups (SHGs)

  • Need for SHGs
  • Benefits of SHGs
  • Weaknesses of SHGs
  • Challenges
  • Measures to Make SHGs Effective
  • Case Studies: Kudumbashree (Kerala), Mahila Arthik Vikas Mahamandal (Maharashtra)

Societies, Trusts and Cooperatives

  • Societies
  • Trust
  • Religious Endowments
  • Cooperatives
    • Need for Cooperatives
    • Constitutional Provisions
    • National Policy on Co-operatives, 2002
    • Issues and Challenges in the Cooperatives Sector

Important Aspects of Governance

  • Dimensions of Governance
  • Good Governance (GG)
  • Aspects of GG
  • Barriers to GG
  • Necessary Pre-conditions for GG
  • How to Ensure GG


  • Applications
  • Models
  • Successes
  • Limitations
  • Potential
  • Recent e-governance Initiatives by Government

Citizens Charters (CC)

  • Components of CC
  • Features of CC
  • Six Principles of CC
  • Shortcomings of CC
  • Measures to Make CC Effective
  • Sevottam Model

Aspects of Transparency and Means to ensure Transparency & Accountability- Elements & Types of Accountability

Role of Civil Services in a Democracy

  • Advisory Role in Policy Making
  • Institutionalise Socio-economic change
  • Discharge Delegated Functions
  • Administer Law of the Land
  • Watchdogs
  • Continuity in times of Political Instability
  • Record-Keeping
  • Channel of Communication

Ailments/Issues Afflicting Indian Civil Services

  • Lack of Professionalism & Poor Capacity Building
  • Inefficient Incentive Systems
  • Outdated Rules & Procedures
  • Systemic Inconsistencies in Promotion
  • Lack of Adequate Transparency & Accountability Procedures
  • Arbitrary & Whimsical Transfers
  • Political Interference & Administrative Acquiescence
  • Gradual Erosion in Values & Ethics
  • Redtapism
  • Elitist in Nature
  • Poor Pay
  • Tendency to Capture Power

Reforming Bureaucracy to Strengthen Democracy

  • Setting Right the Asymmetry of Power
  • Insulating Civil Servants from Undue Political Interference
  • Professionalisation with Stability of Tenure & Competition
  • Citizen-Centric Administration
  • Accountability
  • Outcome Orientation
  • Promoting Public Service Values & Ethics

GS Paper 2 Syllabus for Polity

The GS Paper 1 Syllabus for Polity covers the Indian Constitution, Features of the Indian Constitution, Amendments in the Indian Constitution, Provisions and Constitutional and non-constitutional bodies. The GS 2 Mains Syllabus for Polity is vast and needs to be updated at regular intervals with all the developments and amendments happening. The detailed coverage of topics includes:

Indian Constitution

Features of the Indian Constitution

  • Written
  • Flexible & Rigid
  • Federal & Unitary
  • Parliamentary Form of Government (Presidential vs. Parliamentary Type of Government)

Amendments to Indian Constitution

  • List of Significant Amendments & Their Provisions
  • Procedure for Amending Constitution

Provisions of the Constitution

Functions & Responsibilities of the Union and the States

  • 7th Schedule
  • Legislative Functions
  • Financial Functions
  • Administrative & Quasi-Judicial Functions

Issues & Challenges Pertaining to the Federal Structure

  • Federal Structure in India - Is India truly Federal?
  • Cooperative & Competitive Federalism

Centre-State Relations

  • Legislative Relations
  • Administrative Relations
  • Financial Relations
  • Trends in Centre-State Relations

Inter-State Relations

  • Inter-state Water Disputes
  • Inter-State Councils
  • Public Acts, Records, and Judicial Proceedings
  • Inter-State Trade and Commerce
  • Zonal Councils

Emergency Provisions

Role of President and Governor

Reports of Various Commissions

  • 2nd ARC, Punchhi, Sarkaria, etc.

Devolution of Powers & Finances to Local Levels & Challenges Therein

  • Role of State Government
  • Role of State Finance Commission
  • 11th & 12th Schedule
  • Reasons for Ineffective Performance
  • Panchayat Devolution Index ( NITI Aayog)
  • Steps That Can Be Taken to Improve Their Performance

Separation of Powers Between Various Organs

  • The doctrine of Separation of Power
  • Separation of Power in the Indian Constitution
  • The doctrine of Checks & Balances
  • Provisions for Checks & Balances in Indian Constitution
  • Related Judgments - Golaknath case, Kesavananda Bharati, Indira Gandhi v. Raj Narain, Ram Jawaya v. the State of Punjab

Dispute Redressal Mechanisms and Institutions

Comparison of the Indian Constitutional Scheme With That of Other Countries Parliament & State Legislatures

  • Written Constitution
  • Blend of Rigidity and Flexibility
  • Federal System with Unitary Bias
  • Parliamentary Form of Government
  • Synthesis of Parliamentary Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy
  • Integrated and Independent Judiciary
  • Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties
  • Secular State
  • Universal Adult Franchise
  • Single Citizenship
  • Emergency Provisions
  • Three-tier Government
  • Due Process of Law vs. Procedure Established by Law
  • Impeachment of the President, etc.

Structure, Organization & Functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary

  • Union:
    • President
    • Prime Minister
    • Council of Ministers
    • Cabinet Secretariat
  • State:
    • Governor
    • Chief Minister
    • Council of Ministers
    • Secretariat
  • Judiciary
    • Three-Tier Structure
    • Chief Justice of India
    • SC & HC Judges
    • Jurisdiction

Ministries and Departments of the Government

  • Cabinet Ministries
  • Other Ministries
  • Parliamentary Secretaries

Pressure Groups & Formal/informal Associations & Their Role in Polity

  • Characteristics of Pressure Groups
  • Pressure Groups & Political Parties
  • Pressure Groups & Interest Groups
  • Types of Pressure Groups
  • Functions, Role & Importance of Pressure Groups
  • Techniques/Methods of Pressure Groups
  • Pressure Groups in India
  • Shortcomings of Pressure Groups
  • Salient Features of Representation of People's Act

Appointment to Various Constitutional Posts

Statutory, Regulatory & Quasi-Judicial Bodies

  • NITI Aayog
  • RBI
  • National Human Rights Commission
  • State Human Rights Commission
  • Central Information Commission
  • Central Vigilance Commission
  • Central Bureau of Investigation
  • Lokpal and Lokayuktas
  • National Commission for Women
  • National Commission for Backward Classes
  • National Commission for Minorities
  • Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority
  • Securities and Exchange Board of India
  • Competition Commission of India
  • Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
  • Central Electricity Regulatory Commission
  • Atomic Energy Regulatory Board
  • Central Pollution Control Board
  • Medical Council of India
  • Inland Waterways Authority of India
  • Central Ground Water Authority
  • Directorate General of Civil Aviation
  • Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority
  • Food Safety and Standards Authority of India
  • Bar Council of India
  • University Grants Commission
  • Financial Stability and Development Council
  • All India Council for Technical Education
  • National Green Tribunal
  • Competition Appellate Tribunal
  • Income-Tax Appellate Tribunal
  • Cyber Appellate Tribunal
  • Intellectual Property Appellate Board

International Relations Syllabus for UPSC GS 2

The International Relation Syllabus for UPSC GS Paper 2 includes India's Relations With Neighbouring nations, India's Major Foreign Policy Doctrines Since 1947, Bilateral Relations With other nations, Regional & Global Groupings, Effect of Policies & Politics of Developed & Developing Countries on India's Interests, Indian Diaspora, Important International Institutions.

The detailed topics covered under these are:

India's Relations With Neighbouring Nations

  • Bangladesh
  • Sri Lanka
  • Afghanistan
  • Nepal
  • Maldives
  • China
  • Pakistan
  • Myanmar
  • Bhutan

India's Major Foreign Policy Doctrines Since 1947

  • Non-aligned Movement (NAM)
  • Nuclear Doctrine
  • Gujral Doctrine
  • Look East to Act East
  • Think West, etc.

Bilateral Relations With

  • Major Powers Like - USA, Russia, Japan
  • Central Asian Countries
  • West Asian Countries
  • African Countries
  • Australia & New Zealand
  • EU & European Countries
  • Latin American Countries
  • Pacific Countries

Regional & Global Groupings

  • IBSA
  • India-Africa Forum
  • SCO
  • Ashgabat Agreement
  • Mekong Ganga Cooperation (MGC)
  • Raisina Dialogue
  • Heart of Asia Conference
  • East Asia Summit
  • G-20
  • Asian Development Bank
  • National Security Summit
  • Multilateral Nuclear Export Regulatory Regimes: Wassenar, MTCR, Australia Group
  • APEC, etc

Effect of Policies & Politics of Developed & Developing Countries on India's Interests

  • One Belt One Road
  • International North-South Transport Corridor
  • Global Trade War
  • WTO Reforms
  • South China Sea Conflict
  • Brexit
  • Deglobalisation & Protectionism - US Sanctions on Iran, US Pullout from Paris Agreement, H-1B Visa Issue etc.
  • OPEC Oil Prices Manipulation, etc.
  • Global Currency War
  • Syrian Crisis
  • UN Reforms

Important International Institutions

Indian Diaspora

  • LM Singhvi High-Level Committee on the Diaspora
  • The role played by Indian Diaspora
  • Issues Concerning the Diaspora:
    • Dual Nationality
    • Remittances, etc.
  • Spread of Indian Diaspora
  • India's Diaspora Policy & Engagement Initiatives
    • OCI
    • Pravasi Bharatiya Divas
    • Know India Programme, etc.

GS 2 Syllabus for Social Justice

Social justice means a fair and just relationship between individuals and society. It aims to meet the challenge of socio-economic inequality and the rule of law. The GS 2 Syllabus for Social Justice includes Schemes and Performance of Schemes for the Vulnerable Sections, Mechanisms, Laws, Institutions & Bodies Constituted for Protection & Betterment of Vulnerable Sections, Issues Relating to Development & Management of Social Sector/Services, and Issues Relating to Poverty & Hunger.

The sub-topics covered under these topics include:

Schemes and Performance of Schemes for the Vulnerable Sections, which includes

  • SCs & STs
  • Minorities
  • Children
  • Elderly
  • Disabled
  • Women
  • Transgender

Mechanisms, Laws, Institutions & Bodies Constituted for Protection & Betterment of Vulnerable Sections

  • SCs:
    • The Protection of Civil Rights Act
    • The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act
    • National Commission for Scheduled Castes
    • Scheduled Castes Sub Plan
  • Disabled:
    • The Rehabilitation Council of India Act
    • The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act
    • Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act
    • The National Trust for Welfare of Persons with
      Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act
    • Rights of the Persons with Disabilities Act
  • STs:
    • National Commission for Scheduled Tribes
    • Tribal Sub Plan
    • TRIFED
    • Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act
  • Minorities:
    • National Commission for Minorities
    • National Commission for Religious and Linguistic Minorities
  • Women & Children
    • The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act
    • The Indecent Representation of Women (Prevention) Act
    • The Dowry Prohibition Act
    • The Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act
    • The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act
    • Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act
    • Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act
    • Central Adoption Resource Agency (CARA)
    • The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act
    • Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal)
    • Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PC&PNDT) Act
    • Gender Budgeting
    • National Policy for Women
    • Domestic Violence Act
    • Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act
  • Elderly
    • Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act

Issues Relating to Development & Management of Social Sector/Services

  • Status of Literacy in India
  • Education Structure in India
  • Challenges Faced by Education Sector in India
  • Reforms Required
  • Government Initiatives
  • ASER Report
  • Financing Education
  • Subramanian Panel Report
  • India's Performance on Various Health Indicators
  • Weaknesses of the Indian Healthcare System
  • Health Infrastructure in India
  • Universal Health Coverage
  • 12th FYP Strategy
  • Universal Health Coverage
  • Health Insurance
  • National Family Health Survey
  • National Health Policy
  • National Health Mission
  • Maternal & Adolescent Health
  • Child Health
  • Antimicrobial Resistance
  • Disease Burden in India
  • Measures to Ensure Good Health Outcomes
  • Government Initiatives
  • Need For Skill Development
  • Skill Development Initiatives
  • Challenges in Skilling Landscape in India
  • Shortcomings of Current Skill Development Initiatives

Issues Relating to Poverty & Hunger

  • MDGs & SDGs
  • Food and nutrition insecurity - a consequence of structural inequities
  • Constraints in Reducing Poverty & Hunger
  • Measure to Reduce Poverty & Hunger - National Food Security Act, Mid-day Meal Scheme, MGNREGA etc.
  • Relation between Poverty & Hunger
  • Distribution of Poverty & Hunger
  • Magnitude & Trends of Poverty & Hunger
  • Causes of Poverty & Hunger
  • Cost/Impact of Poverty & Malnutrition

Important Topics of GS Paper 2 Syllabus

To prepare for the upcoming UPSC Mains 2022 Exam, some of the important topics that should be covered for the GS Paper 2 Syllabus are:

  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the states
  • Issues and challenges related to the Federal Structure
  • Devolution of powers and finances up to the local government level
  • Challenges in the devolution of power
  • Separation of powers between various organs of the government
  • Parliament and State Legislatures
  • Salient features of the People's Representation Act
  • Powers, functions and responsibilities of various constitutional bodies
  • Statutory, regulatory, and various quasi-judicial bodies
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency, and accountability
  • E-governance
  • India and its neighbourhood
  • Relations between India and neighbouring countries
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's Interests
  • Mechanisms, laws, institutions, and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of vulnerable sections of the population
  • Issues related to the development and management of the social sector/Services relating to Health, Education, and Human Resources.

GS 2 Syllabus for UPSC in Hindi

यूपीएससी मेन्स का जीएस पेपर 2 सामान्य अध्ययन के चार पेपरों में से एक है। यूपीएससी मेन्स जीएस पेपर 2 में शासन व्यवस्था, संविधान, शासन प्रणाली, सामाजिक न्याय तथा अंतर्राष्ट्रीय संबंध जैसे विषय शामिल हैं।

  • भारतीय संविधान- ऐतिहासिक आधार, विकास, विशेषताएँ, संशोधन, महत्त्वपूर्ण प्रावधान और बुनियादी संरचना। संघ एवं राज्यों के कार्य तथा उत्तरदायित्व, संघीय ढाँचे से संबंधित विषय एवं चुनौतियाँ, स्थानीय स्तर पर शक्तियों और वित्त का हस्तांतरण और उसकी चुनौतियाँ।
  • विभिन्न घटकों के बीच शक्तियों का पृथक्करण, विवाद निवारण तंत्र तथा संस्थान। .
  • भारतीय संवैधानिक योजना की अन्य देशों के साथ तुलना।
  • संसद और राज्य विधायिका- संरचना, कार्य, कार्य-संचालन, शक्तियाँ एवं विशेषाधिकार और इनसे उत्पन्न होने वाले विषय।
  • कार्यपालिका और न्यायपालिका की संरचना, संगठन और कार्य- सरकार के मंत्रालय एवं विभाग, प्रभावक समूह और औपचारिक/अनौपचारिक संघ तथा शासन प्रणाली में उनकी भूमिका।
  • जन प्रतिनिधित्व अधिनियम की मुख्य विशेषताएँ।
  • विभिन्न संवैधानिक पदों पर नियुक्ति और विभिन्न संवैधानिक निकायों की शक्तियाँ, कार्य और उत्तरदायित्व।
  • सांविधिक, विनियामक और विभिन्न अर्द्ध-न्यायिक निकाय।
  • सरकारी नीतियों और विभिन्न क्षेत्रों में विकास के लिये हस्तक्षेप और उनके अभिकल्पन तथा कार्यान्वयन के कारण उत्पन्न विषय।
  • विकास प्रक्रिया तथा विकास उद्योग- गैर-सरकारी संगठनों, स्वयं सहायता समूहों, विभिन्न समूहों और संघों, दानकर्ताओं, लोकोपकारी संस्थाओं, संस्थागत एवं अन्य पक्षों की भूमिका।
  • केन्द्र एवं राज्यों द्वारा जनसंख्या के अति संवेदनशील वर्गों के लिये कल्याणकारी योजनाएँ और इन योजनाओं का कार्य-निष्पादन; इन अति संवेदनशील वर्गों की रक्षा एवं बेहतरी के लिये गठित तंत्र, विधि, संस्थान एवं निकाय।
  • स्वास्थ्य, शिक्षा, मानव संसाधनों से संबंधित सामाजिक क्षेत्र/सेवाओं के विकास और प्रबंधन से संबंधित विषय।
  • गरीबी एवं भूख से संबंधित विषय।
  • शासन व्यवस्था, पारदर्शिता और जवाबदेही के महत्त्वपूर्ण पक्ष, ई-गवर्नेंस- अनुप्रयोग, मॉडल, सफलताएँ, सीमाएँ और संभावनाएँ; नागरिक चार्टर, पारदर्शिता एवं जवाबदेही और संस्थागत तथा अन्य उपाय।
  • लोकतंत्र में सिविल सेवाओं की भूमिका।
  • भारत एवं इसके पड़ोसी- संबंध।
  • द्विपक्षीय, क्षेत्रीय और वैश्विक समूह और भारत से संबंधित और/अथवा भारत के हितों को प्रभावित करने वाले करार।
  • भारत के हितों पर विकसित तथा विकासशील देशों की नीतियों तथा राजनीति का प्रभाव; प्रवासी भारतीय। महत्त्वपूर्ण अंतर्राष्ट्रीय संस्थान, संस्थाएँ और मंच- उनकी संरचना, अधिदेश।

UPSC GS Paper 2 Syllabus PDF

The UPSC GS Paper 2 Syllabus PDF comes in very handily during the preparation of UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains. It helps us to segregate topics according to the relevance of the UPSC Prelims Syllabus and UPSC Mains Syllabus and cover them accordingly. Below is a compiled PDF for the Syllabus of General Studies Paper 2.

Download it, and keep it handy all the time during the UPSC Exam Preparation.

Strategy to Crack UPSC GS Paper 2 Syllabus

The UPSC Mains GS Paper 2 Syllabus is exhaustive but very scoring if the concepts are clears. A concise and full-fledged UPSC Preparation Strategy of the Syllabus of General Studies Paper 2 can help the candidate score above average marks and help him/her get the desired IAS, IPS, IRS, or IFS.

The UPSC GS Paper 2 Syllabus requires regular updation with Current Affairs and happenings. A candidate who is aware of his/her surroundings and is well read can write a multidimensional answer. The strategy to crack UPSC Mains GS Paper 2 Syllabus is to:

  • Familiarize with Exam Pattern: It is very necessary to familiarize oneself with the UPSC Exam Pattern. Hence, one knows what areas to focus on. The UPSC Exam is conducted in three stages, UPSC Prelims, UPSC Mains, and the Interview Stage.
  • Know the Syllabus thoroughly: As a UPSC aspirant, you must know the UPSC Syllabus at your fingertips. Though integrated, the UPSC Prelims Syllabus and UPSC Mains Syllabus require a completely different approach to tackle.
  • Keep Resources Limited: One thing to keep in mind during the UPSC Preparation is to keep the booklist and resources limited and revise them regularly. One should start with the NCERT Books for UPSC to have a firm foundation, then proceed with the recommended UPSC Books. For UPSC Mains GS Paper 2 Syllabus, one should focus more on the Polity Books for UPSC and International Relations Books for UPSC. For Governance and Social Justice, one can refer to Governance in India by M.Laxmikanth and Social Problems in India by Ram Ahuja, respectively. Aspirants should also refer to Economic Survey, Press Information Bureau (PIB) and MEA Website to get in-depth information.
  • Refer to Previous Year Questions: One way to ace the UPSC Exam is to practice the UPSC Previous Years Question Papers immensely. The PYQs help us understand the pattern of the questions asked and let us know the areas that need more attention.
  • Focus on Current Affairs: Aspirants need to focus on Current Affairs, which can be covered through newspapers and Current Affairs Videos. Though the Syllabus of General Studies Paper 2 is more on the static side, correlating it with recent developments and verified research helps to make the answer multi-faceted.


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FAQs on UPSC GS 2 Syllabus

  • UPSC Mains GS Paper 2 is titled as “Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice, and International Relations”. It is a 250-marks subjective paper of the UPSC Mains. The score obtained in the UPSC Mains GS Paper 2 is considered for determining the final rank of the candidate.

  • To prepare for GS 2 UPSC, one should refer to:

    • Indian Constitution at Work (NCERT)
    • Contemporary World Politics (NCERT)
    • Understanding Society (NCERT)
    • Social Change & Development in India (NCERT)
    • Indian Polity by Laxmikanth.
    • Introduction to the Constitution of India by D.D. Basu.
    • Governance in India by Laxmikanth.
    • India Year Book.
  • There are twenty questions printed both in English and Hindi. All questions are compulsory, and the number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it.

  • Always follow the basic approach of study-revise-improvise. Always prefer standard preparatory material or NCERT Books. Keep on referring to UPSC's previous years' papers to check if you have missed any topic. Following these mindful tips will help you easily cover the  GS 2 Syllabus in UPSC.

  • To download the syllabus of GS Paper 2 PDF for free, click here.

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