UPPSC Study Notes: Soil, Agriculture and Rivers
Soil, Agriculture and Rivers are three major portions of geography syllabus for UPPSC PCS and other UP state exams. In this article, we will see features of Soil, Agriculture and Rivers in the state of Uttar Pradesh. These short notes will come in handy when you need a quick revision of UP specific geographic facts.
Soil of Uttar Pradesh
- The soil in the Bhabar -Terai area is majorly made up of pebbles and thick sand particles.
- In Uttar Pradesh alluvial soil is most widespread.
- The alluvial soil constitutes of mud and sand particles and is one of the most fertile soils in the country.
- Alluvial soil is rich in Potash and lime.
- Sandy Desert soil is also found in UP, but it is mostly confined to Western districts of Uttar Pradesh which border Rajasthan and MP.
- Lal, Parva, Mar, Rakar, and Bhonta etc. soils are found in Bundelkhand area.
- The percentage of the wetland area is, in terms of total area of the state: 5.15%·
- District with the largest Wetland area in UP: Sonabhadra.
- Districts with least wetland area in UP: Baghpat and Hathras
Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in Uttar Pradesh
- Total agro-ecological zones in the state: 20.
- 59.3% of the working population of Uttar Pradesh dependent on agriculture.
- Uttar Pradesh consists of 9 agro-climatic zones.
- The highest percentage of irrigation in Uttar Pradesh is done by Tube Wells.
- In 2014-15, the cropping intensity of Uttar Pradesh was 157.53 per cent.
- Uttar Pradesh is ranked 1st in the overall production of wheat, barley, sugarcane, potato and lentils in the country.
- Uttar Pradesh is ranked 2 in production of rice in the country.
- Production of gram is highest in Bundelkhand region in Uttar Pradesh.
- The largest cash crop in UP is Sugarcane.
- Gorakhpur is the largest Wheat-producing district of Uttar Pradesh.
- The cultivation of Opium is done is Barabanki district of UP.
- Potato processing and export zone is in the district of Agra.
- Ghazipur houses the only Opium factory of UP.
- Mango Research and Training centre is located in Lucknow.
- Guava Research and Training centre is located in Allahabad.
- Pratapgarh is the highest Amla production region.
- Uttar Pradesh has the highest population of livestock.
- Uttar Pradesh is ranked 1st in the milk production.
- Uttar Pradesh is ranked at 8th place in the production of Poultry.
- Animal feed Bank of UP is located in Bharari (Jhansi).
- State milk council was established in 1976.
Rivers in Uttar Pradesh
- Major rivers in UP are: Ganga, Yamuna, Ramganga, Gomti and Ghaghara.
- Most polluted river of UP is the Yamuna.
- The highest concentration of pollutants in the river Ganga is from Kannauj to Varanasi.
- Highest BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) in the river Ganga is in Kanpur to Allahabad stretch.
- Main cities of Uttar Pradesh lying on the banks of river Ganga are: Sherpur, Ghazipur, Saidpur, Varanasi, Mirzapur, Sirsa, Allahabad, Shringerpur, Kalakankar, Dalmau, Kanpur, Bithoor, Bellaur, Fatehgarh, Kachhalaghat, Garhmukteswar, etc.
- Length of river Ganga in Uttar Pradesh is about 900 km.
- The entry and exit of river Ganga in UP is Bijnor and Ballia districts respectively.
- Ganga flows through 28 districts of UP.
- Ramganga Joins Ganga near Fatehgarh.
- Kali river Joins Ganga near Kannauj.
- Boodhi Ganga Joins Ganga at Badaun.
- Largest Ganga’s coastal district of Uttar Pradesh: Badaun (133 K.m).
- The major cities of the UP which are located on the bank of river Yamuna: Allahabad, Kaushambi, Hamirpur, Etawah, Kalpi Bateshwar, Agra, Mathura, Vrindavan, Baghpat etc.
- The Yamuna river flows through 19 districts of UP.
- The entry and exit points of river Yamuna in UP lie in the districts of Saharanpur and Allahabad(joing ganga here) respectively.
- The towns on the bank of the Gomti river: Jaunpur, Sultanpur, Lucknow, etc.
- The towns situated on the banks of the river Saryu are : Ayodhya, Gonda, Barhalanganj, Chhahaj etc.
- The entry and exit point of Gandak river in the state of UP lie in the districts Maharajganj and Kushinagar, respectively.
- Gandak river is also known as Shaligrami and Narayani in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
- Sharada (Kali) river enters UP through Pilibhit district.
- Hindon river joins the Yamuna at Noida.
- Chambal river enters Uttar Pradesh from Agra district.
- Chambal river joins into the Yamuna river in Auraiya district.
- The entry of Betwa river into UP is through the district of Lalitpur.
- Betwa in UP joins the Yamuna at Hamirpur.
- Ken River enters UP through Banda district.
- Ken River joins the Yamuna at Banda.
- Tons river enters UP in Allahabad where it also merges into the Ganga.
- The entry and exit district of the Son river in UP is Sonbhadra district.
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