Mughal Empire Part-4
Aurangzeb (1658 - 1707)
- Aurangzeb imprisoned his father and made himself the Padshah in 1658. But his actual coronation was conducted in 1659. He defeated Dara and crowned himself under the title “Alamgir”. He was the last great Mughal Emperor after which the disintegration had started.
- Aurangzeb is known as ‘Zinda Pir’ or living saint because of his simple life.
- He was a staunch and orthodox Muslim who banned singing and dancing in the Royal court. He reintroduced Jizyah and Pilgrimage tax.
- In 1675, he executed 9th Sikh Guru, Guru Teg Bahadur because of his reluctance to accept Islam. Guru Gobind Singh, the last Sikh Guru, organized his followers under Khalsa to fight the tyranny of Aurangzeb. He was assassinated in 1708.
- Aurangzeb’s son built Bibi ka Makbara in 1679 AD in memory of his mother Rabia-Durrani.
- The only building by Aurangzeb in Red Fort is Moti Masjid. He also built the Badshahi Masjid in Lahore.
- Shivaji and Mughals: Aurangzeb made several bids to crush the Marathas when they rose under Shivaji. In 1665 Aurangzeb conspired with Jai Singh of Amber to eliminate Shivaji when he visited Aurangzeb’s court. Shivaji escaped and proclaimed himself as an independent ruler but he died in 1680. Aurangzeb executed Shivaji’s son Sambhaji in 1689. Shivaji’s guerilla warfare tactics made it difficult for Aurangzeb to bring Deccan under his control.
- After Shivaji’s death, Aurangzeb spent 25 years (1682 – 1707) in a desperate bid to crush Marathas by leaving North
- During Aurangzeb’s reign, Mughals expanded widely and became Pan-India Empire. He annexed Bijapur and Golconda in 1686 and 1687 respectively.
- Aurangazeb died in 1707 at Ahmednagar. Aurangazeb’s tomb is situated at Daulatabad in Maharashtra.
1707 – 12
Bahadur Shah I
Original name – Muazzam
1712 – 13
Ascended the throne with the help of Zulfikar Khan
1713 – 19
Sayyid brothers helped him in ascending the throne
1719 – 48
Nadir Shah raided India. Weak successor
1748 – 54
Ahmad Shah Abdali raided India. Mughals ceded Punjab and Multan
1754 – 59
Delhi was occupied by Ahmad Shah Abdali and later plundered
1759 – 06
Shah Alam II
Lived outside Delhi
1806 – 37
Pensioner of East India Company, conferred the title Raja on Raja Ram Mohan Roy
1837 – 57
Bahadur Shah II
1857 Revolt took place under his nominal leadership. Was deported to Burma