TYPES OF HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING
1- Short term Human Resource Planning: Made for a short span of time, ie, a period of not more than two years. In the short run, it may not be possible to change the personnel to suit the jobs or eliminate jobs to suit the individual. The problem arising here is to match individuals with jobs as best as possible. The problems an organisation face in short-run Human Resource Planning are:
The Weak Incumbent - This is the first and the most difficult problem. This occurs when the personnel is not suitable to the specification of the job. In such a situation, four approaches can be taken :
- Changing the incumbent- changing the present state of the incumbent by providing him with proper education, training and motivation., thereby improving his skills to meet the job specification.
- Change in the content of the job - The next approach is to change the contents of the job to meet the skills of the individual. This can be done through adjusting the degree of decentralisation, withdrawing a duty from the job, providing additional assistance etc.
- Changing the job and the incumbent - This is a combination of the above two approaches where changes are made to both the job and the incumbent.
- Removal of the incumbent - The next approach is to remove the incumbent. This step should only be taken if the above steps are unsuccessful.
The Strong Incumbent - Some people present in the organisation may have a higher ability than what their present job demands. In such a case also, the problem of matching the jobs with the individual arises as the individual’s potential is underutilised. The following are the various approaches that can be used :
- Assigning additional duties - Worker may be assigned additional duties than what his job demands and also he can be asked to advise other weak incumbents.
- Assigning some special problems - The help of capable personnel can be used when any special problems arise in the organisation.
- Advice - Advice of the capable worker can be sought when any problem in the area of his expertise arises.
- Change in job - The underutilised ability of the worker can be utilised by changing his job by bringing in more activities into the job.
Unexpected Vacancy- The next problem which management faces in the short run is the vacancy or shortfall arising in the manpower due to unexpected reasons like death, resignation or other social issues. This can be solved to an extent by rearranging personnel and by training the employees to take up future vacancies.
2- Long term Human Resource Planning: Long term Human Resource Planning is concerned with all the jobs in the organisation as well as all the persons in the organisation. It is mainly concerned with fulfilling future vacancies rather than matching the present workers to the present jobs. The long term Human Resource Planning has the following elements :
Projecting the manpower requirements
- The rate of loss due to known as well as unknown factors should be correctly estimated
- An estimate of growth and expansion of the business should be estimated as it has a huge impact on the manpower requirement in future.
- Job analysis is a useful tool in projecting future manpower requirements.
Taking stock of existing manpower - Stock of existing manpower is to be taken in order to analyse the level of training required for them to be capable in the future, the qualification required to meet the future jobs etc.
Recruitment and selection - Once the existing manpower is completely analysed the process of recruitment and selection begins. The recruitment and selection activity helps in finding prospective candidates for the job and invites them to apply for the jobs in the organisation.
Manpower development - Manpower development includes the development of individuals through proper training to fill the prospective vacancies so that they can face the challenges that arise in the future.
LEVELS OF HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING
- Plant Level - Human Resource Planning at the plant level can be conducted by an operating committee by considering the past information as well as future projections. The committee shall prepare a plan in light of all the expected changes in the foreseeable future.
- Departmental or Divisional Level - The plan developed at the plant level is submitted to the next organisational level, which would be the departmental level. The departmental committee will estimate all the manpower requirements of the departments and will submit a comprehensive plan to the top management.
- Top-Level - The manpower plan of the departmental committee will be clearly evaluated and integrated with manpower plans of the organisation as a whole.
PROBLEMS IN HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING
- Human Resource Planning involves forecasting the future demand and supply of manpower. However, accuracy in these forecasts cannot be guaranteed.
- Manpower planning requires complete support from the top management. In the absence of this support, manpower planning cannot be undertaken properly.
- Employees feel that Human Resource Planning will cause a threat to their jobs and also cause more workload. This will result in resistance on the part of the employees.
- Effectiveness of Human Resource Planning depends on the reliability of the information system in the organisation. In many of the organisations, the management information system may not be accurate.
- It is highly risky to depend on future estimates as the business environments are filled with uncertainties.
SUGGESTIONS TO IMPROVE HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING
- Human Resource Planning should be balanced with the organisational plans. There should be a proper integration with the Human Resource Plan as well as Organisation Plans.
- Nature, size of the organisation, period of manpower planning should be analysed during manpower planning.
- To be effective in the long run, Human Resource Planning should have the support of the top management.
- Human Resource Planning is not the sole responsibility of the planners. There should be active involvement of operating executives as well.
- There should be a reliable and efficient management information system for Human Resource Planning to be effective.
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