Constitutional Provisions for Types of Forest
Different types of forests are included in the Concurrent List in the (Seventh Schedule) of the Constitution of India. Forests and Protection of Wild Animals and Birds shifted from State to Concurrent List as per the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976.
Given below are the two articles of the Indian Constitution that played a major role in protecting the forests.
Article 51 A (g) of the Constitution
It is the fundamental duty of every citizen to protect and improve the natural environment, including forests and Wildlife.
Article 48 A in the Directive Principles of State policy
The article mandates that the State shall attempt to save and enhance the environment and protect the forests and wildlife of the country.
Types of Forest in India
Generally, three types of forest exist: temperate, tropical, and boreal. According to environmentalists, these types of forests cover roughly one-third of the Earth's surface.
Temperate Types of Forest
- These are seen across Eurasia and eastern North America.
- Temperate forest temperature varies due to the four different seasons at these latitudes throughout the year.
- The soil is fertile here due to abundant precipitation and supports various flora like birch, maples, and oak.
- Animals discovered in temperate forests include bears, squirrels, and deer.
Boreal Types of Forest
- It is also popularly called taiga.
- These are one of the world's largest land biomes and are seen across Scandinavia, Siberia, and North America (Alaska and Canada).
- Their significant part is removing excess carbon dioxide from the Earth's atmosphere.
- Boreal forests are discovered in areas where temperatures are below freezing.
- The principal needle-leaf plant species sound these forests are Conifers, spruce, fir, and pine trees.
- The forests are home to large herbivorous fauna like deer and moose.
- The native birds of Taiga move to warmer forests or areas during the harsh winters of the Boreal forest.
Alpine Types of Forest
- Alpine forests are grasslands beginning at an altitude of above 3000 meters and grow just below the snowline.
- Alpine forests are popular in empty cold deserts of the Tran Himalaya and in the main Himalayan areas.
- Vegetation does not grow more than 1.5 meters in the low alpine grasslands.
- Climatic conditions vary from the sub-arctic to the arctic, with snow covering the ground for over 5 months a year.
- The vegetation consists mainly of the the drooping juniper; black juniper, honeysuckle and willow.
Classification of Types of Forest
Different types of forest are home to various species of animals and plants, we should prevent cutting down trees excessively. Reduction in green belts has been a major cause of global warming, soil erosion, floods, and pollution. Forests in India are classified on the following basis:
- On Administration-Basis
- Classification as per Constitution of India
- On Merchantability
- Based on Composition
- Based on Annual Rainfall
Types of Forest - Based on Administration-Basis
Based on the context of decision-making body for forests in India, these are divided into three types of forest, namely:
- Unprotected Forests
- Protected Forests
- Reserved Forests
These forests are unclassified
These forests are taken care by the government.
These forests are directly supervised by the Government.
No limitation on cropping trees or grazing cattle.
Local people are permitted to gather forest produce and cattle grazing.
Public entry is not allowed for the retail purpose of cattle grazing.
Occupy 18% of the Total Forest Area.
Occupy about 29% of the Total Forest Area.
53% of the Total Forest Area is under this category of the country.
Types of Forest - Based on Constitution of India
According to the constitution of India, forests are divided into three categories depending upon whether they are privately owned or under the control of the government.
- Private Forests
- State Forests
- Commercial Forests
These are privately owned.
State forests include all vital areas of Indian forests.
These are completely under government control (state/central).
Managed and owned by local bodies (district boards, village panchayats, municipal corporations, etc.)
Cover a little more than 1% of the TFA.
Cover almost 94% of the TFA.
Cover 5% of the TFA.
Types of Forest - Based on Merchantability
There are two types of forests based on the type of warranty that claims that the goods are reasonably fit for its ordinary and intended purpose for which they are sold. These are:
- Non- Merchantable
Forests which are seen at high mountainous cliffs; non-obtainable.
Forests which are easily available.
Cover 18% of the TFA.
Cover 82% of the TFA.
Types of Forest - Based on Composition
Depending on the types of leaves of the forest trees, they are categorized into two:
- Broad-Leaf Forests
- Coniferous Forests
Tropical and subtropical monsoon forests.
Discovered in the plains, mountainous areas, and plateaus of India.
Seen in middle and upper heights of the N-E Indian states like Arunachal Pradesh and eastern Middle Himalayas.
Cover about 94% of the TFA of the country.
Cover 6.50% of the TFA of the country.
Types of Forests in India - Based on Average Annual Rainfall
Types of forests are classified differently depending on the degree of particularity. Below are types of forests found in India, categorized based on the climatic conditions and type of vegetation.
Tropical Evergreen and Semi-Evergreen Forests
Study what are Tropical Evergreen and Semi-evergreen forests here.
Length of trees
Tropical Deciduous Forests
Know where Tropical Deciduous forests are found, what are its types, and the species found in them.
Tropical Thorn Forests
Go through the features of Tropical Thron forests. Also, study the species found in such forests.
Below we have tabulated the characteristic features of Montane forests along with its types and species.
These types of forests are divided into 2 types, which are Himalayan Moist Forests and Himalayan Dry Temperate, both found in different regions of India and having unique characteristics.
Himalayan Moist Forests:
Himalayan Dry Temperate:
Have a look at the tabulated characteristic features of Littoral/Swamp Forests, along with its location, types, and species.
Mangroves in India
These types of forests are scattered over 6,740 sq. km, which comprises 7% of the earth's total mangrove forests. The forests shield the coastal areas, make the coastline stabilize and prevent them erosion. Sunderbans is the largest tidal forest in the world, found along the Ganges delta.
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