Tughlaq Dynasty: Rulers, Policies, Trick to Remember, PDF Download 2022

By Ashwini Shivhare|Updated : July 29th, 2022

Tughlaq Dynasty: The Tughluq dynasty arose during the medieval period of India and was of Turk-Indian origin. The dynasty was primarily in charge of the Sultanate of Delhi. The Tugluq dynasty reigned from 1312 until 1413 and was governed by various monarchs such as Ghazi Malik, Muhammad-bin-Tughluq, and others. During the reign of the Tughluq dynasty, India's internal and international policy underwent significant changes.

Read the complete article on the Tughlaq Dynasty to get the complete information for the upcoming SSC and Railways exams 2022.

Table of Content

Between AD 1330 to 1335, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq commanded a military campaign that brought the dynasty to its apex. Torture, brutality, and rebellions characterized its rule, resulting in the dynasty's geographic reach rapidly disintegrating after 1335 AD. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the Delhi Sultanate under the Tughlaq Dynasty, which may be utilized by students preparing for any competitive exams 

Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1412)

Emperor

Period

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq

1320-25

Muhammad Tughlaq

1325-51

Firoz Shah Tughlaq

1351-88

Mohammad Khan

1388

Ghiyassuddin Tughlaq Shah II

1388

Abu Baqr

1389-90

Nasiruddin Muhammad

1390-94

Humayun

1394-95

Nasiruddin Mahmud

1395-1412

Important Rulers of the Tughlaq Dynasty and their Policies

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-1325 A.D.)

  • About His Life
    • Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq, also known as Ghazi Malik, founded the Tughluq dynasty.
    • He came from poor beginnings.
    • Ghazni Malik assassinated Khusrau Khan, the last ruler of the Khilji dynasty, and claimed the throne as Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
    • Death: He died in an accident while attending a victory celebration in Bengal, and his son Jauna (Ulugh Khan) replaced him as Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq.

  • Administrative Policies 
    • Ghiyas-ud-din brought order back to his dominion.
    • He prioritized postal arrangements, judiciary, irrigation, agricultural, and law enforcement.
    • He came to the throne in 1320 A.D.
    • He seized control of Bengal, Utkala or Orissa, and Warangal. His son, Fakhr-ud-din Muhammad Jauna Khan, conquered Prataparudra-Deva II, the Kakatiya monarch of Warangal.
    • He apprehended and imprisoned the Mongol chiefs who invaded North India. He fortified the defences of the North-Western border to thwart Mongol incursions. 
    • Tughlaqabad was founded by Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq.
    • He put down Ghiyasuddin Bahadur's uprising in Bengal. In 1325, on his way back from Bengal, he perished as a result of the collapse of a wooden pavilion. According to some historians, he died as a result of a plot devised by his son Jauna Khan because the pavilion was built by the royal architect (Mir Imard) Ahmad.

Mohammad Bin Tuglaq (1325-1351 A.D.)

  • About His Life
    • Junakhan, the crown prince, took the title Muhammad-bin-Tughluq in 1325 A.D.
    • He was one of the most knowledgeable academics of his day. He spoke Arabic and Persian and was well-versed in philosophy, astronomy, logic, mathematics, and physical science.
    • Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq pushed for India's administrative and political union.
    • He conquered Warangal in 1327 A.D.
    • The Sultan maintained cordial relations with foreigners, and the Chinese king sent an embassy to him.
    • Toghan Timur (AD 1341), who came to request permission to repair Buddhist monasteries destroyed during the critical expedition in the Himalayan area.
    • In 1347, the sultan granted permission and dispatched Ibn Batutah to the court of the Chinese emperor.
    • Ibn Batutah was a Moroccan wanderer. In 1333, he arrived in India and was appointed as the principal Qazi of Delhi by Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
    • He has left a priceless chronicle of Muhammad-bin-rule. Tughlaq's
    • Death: While pursuing the rebels in Sind in AD 1351, the Sultan became ill with fever and died at Tattah.
    • His cousin, Firuz Tughlaq, was elected as the new sultan by the chiefs. 

  • Administrative Policies
    • Agricultural Policies 
      • Increased Taxes in Diab Region
        • To replace the void in the coffers, he increased taxes in the Doab area. Many people fled to the forests to avoid high taxes, causing crops to be neglected and major food scarcity to emerge.
        • Unfortunately, the rain did not fall, and the country experienced a horrible famine. The taxes were strictly collected. In the doab, the peasants revolted. The Sultan afterward took a number of actions.
      • He established an agricultural department, "Diwan-i-Kohi", under the command of "Diwan-i-Amir-i-Koht," to cultivate barren (ban jar) land.
      • Sondhar (agricultural) loans were provided for the purpose of digging wells and purchasing seed and tools.
    • Relocated capital from Delhi to Devagiri
      • To safeguard his capital, he relocated it from Delhi to Devagiri and forced the ordinary people and government officials to relocate to Devagiri; but, after much difficulty, he ordered them to return to Delhi.
    • Introduced Copper Monetary System 
      • He established the copper monetary system. Because the value of coins had fallen, he was forced to remove the copper token money.
      • The introduction of copper currency was supposed to be influenced by China's and Iran's introduction of paper token money.
      • Then he ordered that the Tanka be minted in bronze rather than silver, and he set the value of the new bronze coins at the same level as the silver tanka.
    • Military Reforms: He recruited an army of 3,70,000 soldiers to conquer Khurasan, Iraq, and Transoxiana.
      • Mohammed-bin-national Tughluq's treasury bore a heavyweight as a result of the Mongol leader Tamashirin's strategy of lavish gifts provided to avert Mongol invasion.
    • Domestic policies implemented by Mohammed-bin-Tughluq were good, however, they failed owing to bad execution techniques.
    • The collapse of the Delhi Sultanate is attributed to his rash judgments and poor policy implementation.

Also, Check: 50+ Most Important Ancient History Questions PDF

Firoz Shah Tughlaq (AD 1351-1388)

  • About His Life: 
    • Firoz Tughlaq was born in 1351A.D. as the younger brother of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq. He ascended to the throne at the age of forty-six.
    • His liberal measures and contributions to the people's prosperity.
    • Firoz Tughlaq's autobiography is Futuhat-i-Firoz Shahi.
    • He was a supporter of the scholar Zia-ud-din Barani.
    • Several Sanskrit texts on medicine, science, and the arts were translated into Persian under his reign.
    • Kutab- Feroz Shahi – a physics-related book

  • Administrative Policies 
    • With the assistance of his capable minister, Khan-i-Jehan Maqbool, a Hindu convert, he carried out several reforms and public works projects.
    • He reinstated the Jagir system (land grants), which had been abolished by Alauddin, and gave it to his military officers in place of monetary salary. Iqtas were awarded, and the positions of administrators and warriors were declared hereditary. This has a detrimental influence on the army since it has lowered the number of capable men.
    • He formalized the institution of slavery and used it in Royal Karkhanas and other manufacturing operations.
    • Diwan-i- Bandagan, a distinct department, was founded for the welfare of the people.
    • It created a charity bureau known as Diwan-i-Khairat for the assistance of needy people, widows, and orphans, and through which financial assistance was granted for the marriage of destitute Muslim females.
    • In Delhi, a charitable hospital called Darul-Shafa was established, where free medication and food were provided.
    • He also launched Diwan-i-lstibqaq, which provides financial assistance to the underprivileged.
    • He abolished all illegal and inequitable levies.
    • He collected four significant taxes, which are as follows:
      • Kharaj- one-tenth of the land's production
      • Khams accounted for one-fifth of the battlefield loot.
      • Jizya is a poll tax.
      • Zakat is a religious tax levied on Muslims for particular religious objectives.
    • He built 150 wells, 100 bridges, and 50 dams, as well as several irrigation canals.
    • He built towns like as Firozabad, Hissar, Jaunpur, and Fatehabad.
    • Firoz forbade all forms of retaliation and torture.
    • He imposed Jizya on Brahmins.
    • In 1353 and 1359 A.D., Firoz Tughlaq encircled Bengal.
    • He captured Jainagar.
    • He wreaked havoc on Puri's Jagannath Temple.

Tughlaq Dynasty After Firoz Shah Tughlaq

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  • Firoz's descendants were not very powerful or capable.
  • By the end of the 14th century, the majority of the regions had gained independence.
  • Only Punjab and Delhi were still ruled by the Tughlaqs.
  • Timur's invasion occurred during the reign of Tughlaq.

Trick To Remember Delhi Sultanate Dynasties 

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English Trick: Smelly Kangaroos Tickled Saintly Ladybirds.

Hindi Trick: गुलाब खिले तो सेल्फी लो

Tughlaq Dynasty: Rulers, Policies & Trick to Remember PDF  Click here!

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FAQs

  • The first ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty is Ghiasuddin Tughlaq.

  • Ghiasuddin Tughlaq was succeeded by Muhammad bin Tughluq.

  • The total duration of Tughlaq power was from1351 to 1388 AD.

  •  The last ruler of Tughlaq Dynasty was Nasiruddin Mahmud.

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