What are Tropical Evergreen Forests?
Tropical Evergreen forests are lush green forest areas essential for our environment and wildlife. These forests flourish in regions that receive more than 200 cm of rainfall. The evergreen forests help preserve our environment as they harbor innumerable trees that give out oxygen and take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Tropical Evergreen Forest In India includes the Western Ghats, forest areas in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the greater Assam region, Odisha, Kerala, and Karnataka. Different plants and animal species live in harmony in these forests with each other, and this coexistence of flora and fauna leads to the formation of a biome.
Characteristics of Tropical Evergreen Forest In India
The Tropical Evergreen forests form an essential component of Forest Biology and harbor a wide ecosystem of plants, animals, and exotic insects. The key characteristics of Tropical Evergreen Forest In India are as follows:
- Tropical Evergreen forests are found mainly near the equator, and in India, near tropical areas, including marshes, riverbeds, and regions with a large rainfall.
- Evergreen forests occupy 7% of the surface of the earth and are also abundant in India.
- Tropical evergreen forests are usually in areas with more than 200 cm of rainfall and have a temperature of 15-30 degrees Celcius.
- These forests can be extremely dense and multi-layered, with a few areas being so dense that the forest floor hardly receives any sunlight due to the engulfing leaves and large trees.
- Some species in these forests are not found anywhere else, making it integral to protecting and nurturing these habitats.
Plant Species in Evergreen Forests
Tropical Evergreen Forests are primarily located in the southern parts of the country, particularly in the Western Ghats. The main vegetation found in these forests is Ebony, Mahogany, and Rosewood. Here are some of the trees and plant species found in Tropical Evergreen Forest In India-
- White Cedar
- Rubber Chinchona
Animals Found in Tropical Evergreen Forest In India
Tropical Evergreen Forest In India has rich wildlife and trees that can grow to reach a few hundred feet. These big trees with dense leaves and vegetation offer an ideal place for animals and birds. The typical animal species that are found in Tropical Evergreen Forest In India are as follows-
- Malabar Giant Squirrels
- King Cobras
- One-Horned Rhino (Assam, West Bengal)
- Indian Pythons
- Innumerable endangered birds, which include owls, vultures, eagles, hawks, and more.
Geographical Location of Tropical Evergreen Forest In India
Tropical Evergreen Forest In India once covered a vast landmass and was known for its dense vegetation and abundant wildlife. However, with increasing human activity, these forests are now limited to a delta of rivers like Ganga, Godavari, Mahanadi, Yamuna, and others. The forests in the Western Ghats cover the areas in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Goa, and parts of Tamil Nadu.
- The mangroves in the Sunderban forests of the Ganga delta (West Bengal) are one of the largest tidal forests in the world, and the name comes from the Sundari tree that is found in its muddy areas.
- Other tropical evergreen forest areas are the impenetrable jungles in Andaman and Nicobar islands, which harbor mangroves. There are also dense tropical forests in Assam, Odisha, Meghalaya, Tripura, Nagaland, and Arunachal Pradesh.
- Tropical evergreen forests are important for promoting green and are useful for the survival of animals and plants.
- Perhaps with increasing human-to-animal conflict and infiltration in forest areas, many tropical evergreen forests are now semi-evergreen.
- To protect our precious wildlife and forests, we need strict protocols and curbs for human activities in these regions to ensure that our forests thrive again!
Tropical Evergreen Forest UPSC
Tropical evergreen forests are an essential part of the UPSC syllabus. The candidates must gain complete details of the core concepts and fundamentals to be able to able to perform exceptionally in the upcoming exam. These segments are essential for the exam, and the candidates must gain complete details to be able to reach the heights of success. The topic of the tropical evergreen forest is important for the exam and the questions related to this will be asked in the Prelims and the mains exam.