Tropical Evergreen Forest - Characteristics, Animals, UPSC PDF

By K Balaji|Updated : January 18th, 2023

Tropical Evergreen Forest in India is integral to the wildlife ecosystem that is known for providing natural habitat to large species of birds, animals, and insects, especially for endangered species, including indigenous birds like owls, hawks, cardinals, and mammals like possums, raccoons, deer, and others. There are also several trees and medicinal herbs only available in the tropical evergreen forest.

The tropical evergreen forest in India are found along the western Ghats, the greater Assam region in the northeast, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and the coastline of peninsular India. Below you will learn about the tropical evergreen forest in India, their characteristics, the animal and plant species found in these forests, and the geographical location of tropical evergreen forests In India. …

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What are Tropical Evergreen Forests?

Tropical Evergreen forests are lush green forest areas essential for our environment and wildlife. These forests flourish in regions that receive more than 200 cm of rainfall. The evergreen forests help preserve our environment as they harbor innumerable trees that give out oxygen and take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Tropical Evergreen Forest In India includes the Western Ghats, forest areas in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the greater Assam region, Odisha, Kerala, and Karnataka. Different plants and animal species live in harmony in these forests with each other, and this coexistence of flora and fauna leads to the formation of a biome.

Characteristics of Tropical Evergreen Forest In India

The Tropical Evergreen forests form an essential component of Forest Biology and harbor a wide ecosystem of plants, animals, and exotic insects. The key characteristics of Tropical Evergreen Forest In India are as follows:

  • Tropical Evergreen forests are found mainly near the equator, and in India, near tropical areas, including marshes, riverbeds, and regions with a large rainfall.
  • Evergreen forests occupy 7% of the surface of the earth and are also abundant in India.
  • Tropical evergreen forests are usually in areas with more than 200 cm of rainfall and have a temperature of 15-30 degrees Celcius.
  • These forests can be extremely dense and multi-layered, with a few areas being so dense that the forest floor hardly receives any sunlight due to the engulfing leaves and large trees.
  • Some species in these forests are not found anywhere else, making it integral to protecting and nurturing these habitats.

Plant Species in Evergreen Forests

Tropical Evergreen Forests are primarily located in the southern parts of the country, particularly in the Western Ghats. The main vegetation found in these forests is Ebony, Mahogany, and Rosewood. Here are some of the trees and plant species found in Tropical Evergreen Forest In India-

  • White Cedar
  • Chestnut
  • Teak
  • Mango
  • Mahagony
  • Jamun
  • Ebony
  • Agar
  • Bamboo
  • Rosewood
  • Rubber Chinchona

Animals Found in Tropical Evergreen Forest In India

Tropical Evergreen Forest In India has rich wildlife and trees that can grow to reach a few hundred feet. These big trees with dense leaves and vegetation offer an ideal place for animals and birds. The typical animal species that are found in Tropical Evergreen Forest In India are as follows-

  • Elephants
  • Malabar Giant Squirrels
  • Tigers
  • King Cobras
  • Monkeys
  • Lemurs
  • Sloths
  • Bears
  • Deers
  • One-Horned Rhino (Assam, West Bengal)
  • Bats
  • Snails
  • Indian Pythons
  • Innumerable endangered birds, which include owls, vultures, eagles, hawks, and more.

Geographical Location of Tropical Evergreen Forest In India

Tropical Evergreen Forest In India once covered a vast landmass and was known for its dense vegetation and abundant wildlife. However, with increasing human activity, these forests are now limited to a delta of rivers like Ganga, Godavari, Mahanadi, Yamuna, and others. The forests in the Western Ghats cover the areas in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Goa, and parts of Tamil Nadu.

  • The mangroves in the Sunderban forests of the Ganga delta (West Bengal) are one of the largest tidal forests in the world, and the name comes from the Sundari tree that is found in its muddy areas.
  • Other tropical evergreen forest areas are the impenetrable jungles in Andaman and Nicobar islands, which harbor mangroves. There are also dense tropical forests in Assam, Odisha, Meghalaya, Tripura, Nagaland, and Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Tropical evergreen forests are important for promoting green and are useful for the survival of animals and plants.
  • Perhaps with increasing human-to-animal conflict and infiltration in forest areas, many tropical evergreen forests are now semi-evergreen.
  • To protect our precious wildlife and forests, we need strict protocols and curbs for human activities in these regions to ensure that our forests thrive again!

Tropical Evergreen Forest UPSC

Tropical evergreen forests are an essential part of the UPSC syllabus. The candidates must gain complete details of the core concepts and fundamentals to be able to able to perform exceptionally in the upcoming exam. These segments are essential for the exam, and the candidates must gain complete details to be able to reach the heights of success. The topic of the tropical evergreen forest is important for the exam and the questions related to this will be asked in the Prelims and the mains exam.

Important Notes for UPSC
Environmental ConventionsTsunami
Reserve Bank of IndiaPrinciples of Natural Justice
Golaknath CaseCold War
Pardoning Power of PresidentWoods Dispatch 1854
Difference Between Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan ParishadDifference Between Viceroy and Governor-General

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FAQs on Tropical Evergreen Forest

  • The tropical evergreen forests are multi-layered, dense forests that harbour a variety of fauna and flora. These forests receive heavy rainfall, i.e., more than 200 cm of rain per year). Because of the dense vegetation, the forests appear green, thus known as evergreen forests.

  • Tropical Evergreen Forest In India is found in the following states: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Tripura, Meghalaya, West Bengal, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

  • Tropical evergreen forests in India occupy a total of 12% of the land. The percentage of these Tropical Evergreen Forests in India is-

    • Tropical Semi-Evergreen Forest - 4.1%
    • Tropical Wet-Evergreen Forest - 8.0%
  • The animal species of the tropical evergreen forest in India include Elephants, Snails, Scorpions, Sloth, Bats, Owls, Vultures, Eagles, Hawks, One-Horned Rhino (Assam, West Bengal), Deer, Lemur, Monkeys, etc.

  • The plant species in tropical evergreen forests in India are White Cedar, Chestnut, Teak, Mango, Mahagony, Jamun, Ebony, Agar, thorny Bamboo, Rosewood, Rubber Chinchona, Laurel, Aini, Buttresses, etc. The trees in these forests are upto 60 m or above.

  • The states of Kerala and Karnataka have the highest number of tropical evergreen forest In India. Thiruvananthapuram, the capital city of Kerala, is considered the Evergreen City of India because of the extravagant greenery of the trees found in the Tropical Evergreen Forests.

  • Tropical Evergreen Forest In India is primarily found in areas within the tropics, that is, in areas where the air temperatures are relatively high, and rainfall is greater than 200 mm per year. The semi-arid regions have high temperatures and receive less rainfall.

  • The trees in the tropical evergreen forests In India shed their leaves only for about six to eight weeks and always appear green as they do not shed their leaves simultaneously. Thus, they are called evergreen forests.

  • Tropical evergreen forests are an essential part of forest biology. There is a wide variety of plants, animals and exotic insects. The forests are usually located near the equator. These are abundant in India and occupy 7% of the surface. The forests are dense and possess multilayers. Some species are endemic to forest areas.

  • The tropical wet evergreen forests are usually located in areas that receive more than 200 cm of rainfall. The temperature is usually between 15-30 degree celsius. These forests are home to numerous plant and animal species. Some species are even endemic to the specified area. 

  • Tropical evergreen forests are usually found in areas that witness heavy rainfall. It is usually found in Lakshadweep, Western Ghats, Andaman, and Nicobar islands. These forests are also found in certain segments of Tamil Nadu. The tropical evergreen forests in India are found in the segments of Tamil Nadu. The animals found in the tropical evergreen forests of India are Elephants, Tigers, King Cobras, Monkey, Lemurs, Sloths, Bears etc. 

  • The tropical evergreen forests are the hub of biodiversity. These are the spaces of greenery and are home to numerous animal and plant species. Depletion of the forests results in the degradation of the flora and fauna of that area. These forests play an instrumental and eminent role in the functioning of the ecosystem.

  • The tropical forests in India are known as evergreen because they are covered with greenery always. The main plant species found in the tropical evergreen forests are white Cedar, Chestnut, Mango, Mahogany, Jamun etc. These are the dwelling place of numerous plant and animal species.

  • The tropical evergreen forests are known as lungs of the Earth because of huge greenery and the amount of oxygen they produce. The plants usually draw carbon dioxide and produce oxygen, hence are called as the lungs of the Earth. The dense forests are located in Andaman and Nicobar islands, Odisha, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland etc.

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