Through a Focus on Any Two Countries, Explain How Nations Developed Over the Nineteenth Century

By K Balaji|Updated : November 12th, 2022

Through a focus on any two countries, Italy and Britain, nationalism created nation-states in place of dynastic empires of Europe.

A nation-state was one in which the majority of its people, as opposed to just its rulers, came to have a feeling of common identity and shared ancestry. It was shaped by the deeds and struggles of leaders and average individuals. In place of Europe's hereditary empires, nation-states were established throughout the nineteenth century as a result of nationalism.

This response will concentrate on the growth of two countries: Italy and Britain.

Development of Italy

In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was crowned as the head of a unified Italy.

Italy – Before Unification

  • The middle of the 19th century saw the division of Italy into seven states.
  • The Southern portions were ruled by the Spanish Bourbon kings, the Northern regions by the Austrian Hasburgs, and the Central areas by the Pope.
  • Only one of the seven states, namely, was controlled by an Italian noble house. Sardinia-Piedmont.

Unification of Italy

  • Over the course of its long history, Italy experienced political division.
  • The diverse Habsburg Empire and various dispersed dynastic entities were present. Mazzini desired a united and autonomous Italy.
  • In 1860, a huge group of armed volunteers led by Garibaldi marched into the Kingdom of Two Sicilies and South Italy in order to expel the Spanish rulers from these areas of Italy. They gained the backing of the peasants.
  • Victor Emmanuel II became the next monarch of Italy in 1861 as a result.
  • Following the formation of the United Kingdom of Italy, Cavour assumed office as the country's first prime minister.

Development of Britain

The formation of the nation-state – Britain was a strange case.

  • There was no British country before the eighteenth century.
  • Scots, English, Irish, and Welsh peoples made up the population of the British Isles. There were distinct political and cultural traditions among each of these ethnic groupings.

Subjugation of Ireland by England

  • Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801, following the failure of the United Irishmen (1798) insurrection led by Wolfe Tone.

Scotland – Subjugation of Culture by England

  • Through the Act of Union, England was allowed to exert its influence on Scotland (1707). This Act established the "United Kingdom of Great Britain" and was a union of Scotland and England.
  • English lawmakers predominated the British Parliament following this action. Now the equation was England+Wales+Scotland+Ireland=United Kingdom of Great Britain


Through a Focus on Any Two Countries, Explain How Nations Developed Over the Nineteenth Century

Italy and Britain were the two nations that received the most attention under nationalism, which replaced the hereditary empires of Europe with nation-states.

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