We have all heard of Electric Vehicles, though EVs are not a new concept the emergence of electric cars dates back further than you think. The first ones go back as far as 1880, and they were common into the early 20th century. They gained popularity in past decade with increasing Environmental crisis and limited resources, EVs are in great demand!
Basic Components and Working of Electric Vehicle :
Electric cars function by plugging into a charge point and taking electricity from the grid. They store the electricity in rechargeable batteries that power an electric motor, which turns the wheels. Electric cars accelerate faster than vehicles with traditional fuel engines hence they feel lighter to drive
An electric powered car has three primary components. These are the Electric engine, Motor Controller, and Battery.
Battery : The battery of an electric car can be charged through the use of ordinary grid electricity at a specialized power station. Major batteries used in Electric Vehicle are as follows:
- Lithium-Ion Batteries
- Lead Acid Batteries
- Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries
Motor Controller :
- The motor controller of an electric car administers its complete operation and the distribution of its power at any given moment.
- It plays a role of floodgate between the motor and batteries.
- It regulates all key performance indications such as the vehicle’s operator, motor, battery, and accelerator pedal.
- It has a microprocessor which can limit or redirect current.
- It is used to either improve the mechanical performance of the car or suit the operator’s driving style.
- Converts the electric current in the form of Direct Current (DC) into Alternating Current (AC)
- EVs have a single-speed transmission which sends power from the motor to the wheels.
Electric Engine :
- Here, The Electric engine or motor has only one moving part, making the vehicle reliable source of motive power.
- Car’s system voltage helps you choosing a suitable Electric Engine
- They can use either AC or DC current.
- If the motor is a DC motor, then it may run on anything from 96 to 192 volts. Many of the DC motors used in electric cars come from the electric forklift industry.
- If it is an AC motor, then it probably is a three-phase AC motor running at 240 volts AC with a 300 volt battery pack.
- Plug into an outlet or EV charging point to charge your battery.
Types of Electric Vehicle
Electric vehicles come in three types and they are classified on the basis of electricity is used as their energy source:
Battery Electric Vehicles or BEV :This type is fully electric with rechargeable batteries and does not have a gasoline engine.
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles or PHEV: This type of electric vehicle is also known as Extended-Range Electric Vehicles and it is powered by both petrol and electricity.
Hybrid Electric Vehicles or HEV :This type of electric car is also powered by both petrol and electricity.
Advantages of Electric Vehicles
- No fuel, no emissions : This is the key point that attracts many people to electric cars. If you are an environment lover, then these vehicles are perfect for you!
- Running costs : A lot of money can be saved on fuels!
- Low maintenance: Petrol and diesel engines can require expensive engine maintenance over their lifetimes – electric vehicles don’t, as traditional combustion engine has hundreds of moving parts which can potentially go wrong, whereas an electric motor has fewer than 20.
- Performance: Electric cars are lighter, and – as all of their power is generated from a standing start – their acceleration capability can surprise.
Disadvantages of electric vehicles
- Driving range : Range is not good as others.
- Recharge time: Charging electric vehicles does take longer
- Battery life: A battery is vital to an electric car, you certainly won’t be driving anywhere without one! The batteries currently in use in EVs do have a limited life expectancy.
Electric and Greener future ahead!
However Electric Vehicles will transform the way of travelling in future, as there is lot more to be explored same way there is lot more to be explained in detail so we will publish one more article on Electric vehicles covering the types of vehicles in detail.
This article was requested by many Engineers who dream of having an electric vehicle or building one on their own so if liked the content and found it informative do not forget to upvote the article keeping the enthusiasm alive for curiosity of knowing latest technologies!
Stay tuned to Gradeup for more Technology articles. In the coming week, we will be posting one more article on Electric Vehicles.
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