Super TET Continents and Mountains Study Notes: Know Their Formation and Types, Study Material!

By Komal|Updated : September 14th, 2021

Super TET Continents and Mountains Study Note: In this article, Candidates appearing for Online Classroom Program TET Exam can understand the subject Continents and Mountains Continents and Mountains. Also, Get to know about how the mountains are formed, their types and features. Details about 7 continents and 5 highest mountains in the world. Get the Study Notes for better understanding and scoring good in Exam.

 

Table of Content

Continents: 7 major land divisions on Earth

In this article, we should read related to the Continents Important for the Super TET. A continent is one of the 7 major land divisions on Earth. The continents from the biggest to the smallest according to size are:

  1. Asia
  2. Africa
  3. North America
  4. South America
  5. Antarctica
  6. Europe
  7. Australia

When geographers recognize a continent they usually include all the related islands. Japan, for example, is a member of Asia. Similarly,   Greenland and all the Caribbean Sea islands are commonly considered a part of North America. The continents together add up to some 148 million square kilometres (57 million square miles) of land.

How were continents formed?

To understand this we need to understand the theory of continental drift.

Continental drift theory is an attempt to understand how continents and oceans are organized today.

1. In this theory, it is assumed that at the beginning all continents were united and formed a single large unit of the landmass.
2. This 'stable' or 'parent continent' is known as 'Pangaea’.
3. The word Pangaea is made up of two different parts called “pan” which means “all” and “Gaea’ meaning “earth”.
4. The Pangaea started to break up close to the end of the Mesozoic period.

The reason for the breaking down of Pangea was given by a German meteorologist and geophysicist Alfred Wegener who put forward a hypothesis known as the continental drift hypothesis which states that all the continents formed a single continental body, and the globe was surrounded by a superocean.

According to Wegener:

  • The supercontinent of Pangaea began to split around 200 million years ago to form ‘Laurasia’ (which included modern-day North America, Greenland and all of Eurasia and ‘Gondwanaland’ ( which includes modern-day South America, Africa Madagascar, India, Arabia Malaysia East Indies, Australia, and Antarctica ).
  • These two landmasses were separated by a long shallow inland sea known as the ‘Tethys Sea’. It is considered that the present shapes and the relative positions of all the continents are the results of the fragmentation of ‘Pangaea’ by rifting and drifting apart of the broken landmasses.
  • The reason behind this fragmentation is the movement of tectonic plates (earth crust floating over hot lava of molten mantle).
    Tectonic Plates are still in motion even today, moving at a very slow rate.

Details about 7 continents(approx)

Name of the Continent

Area

Number of Countries

Population

Asia

 44,579,000 sq. km

48

4,436,224,000

Africa

30,221,532 sq km

54

1,216,130,000

North America

24,709,000 sq km

23

579,024,000

South America

17,840,000 sq km

12

422,535,000

Antarctica

14,000,000 sq km

0

1106

Europe

10,180,000 sq km

50

738,849,000

Australia

8,525,989 sq km

3

39,901,000

Features of Mountains

Serial No.Features
1A mountain is a geological land type rising above the surrounding landform.
2A mountain usually rises at least 1,000 feet above sea level. Some mountains exceed 10,000 feet above sea level, with Mount Everest being the world's highest mountain at an altitude of 29,036 feet.
3Tiny mountains are typically called hills (below 1000 feet).
4These are usually formed by the tectonic plate movement in the Earth's crust. Large mountain ranges like the Himalayas also form along those plate boundaries. Tectonic Plates move very slowly and since mountains are formed due to tectonic movements, it can take millions of years to form a mountain.

Types of Mountains

There are three main types of mountains viz.

Serial No.Types of Mountains
1.Fold Mountains
2.Fault Block Mountains
3.Volcanic Mountains.

These mountains are named according to the mode of formation.

Types of MountainsFeatures
Fold Mountains

1. Fold Mountains are created when two plates collide or run into each other.
2. The force of the two plates crashing into each other causes crumpling and folding of the Earth's surface.
3. Fold Mountains are many of the world's great mountain ranges, including the Andes, the Himalayas, and the Rockies.

Fault-block Mountains1. Fault-block Mountains develop along Faults where some large blocks of rock are pushed upwards while others are forced down.
2. Sometimes the higher area is called a "Horst" and the lower one a "graben".
3. In the western United States, the Sierra Nevada Mountains are examples of fault-block ranges.
Volcanic Mountains1. The volcanic mountain ranges are called volcanic ranges.
2. Two major types of volcanic mountains that exist are volcanoes and the Dome Mountains. Volcanoes form as magma erupts all the way up to the Earth's surface.
3. The magma can on the surface of the Earth gets hardened and in this process forms a mountain.
4. Dome Mountains are formed when a great deal of magma rises up below the surface of the Earth. It forces the rock above the magma to gush out and form a mountain. 5. Examples of volcanic mountains include Mt. Fuji and Mt. At Hawaii Mauna Loa.

Details about the 5 Highest Mountains of the world

Mountain Name

Range

Height

Country

Mt. Everest

Himalayas

8848m

Nepal/Tibet

K2

Karakoram

8611m

Pakistan/China

Kangchenjunga

Himalayas

8586m

Nepal/India

Lhotse

Himalayas

8516m

Nepal/Tibet

Makalu

Himalayas

8485m

Nepal/Tibet

 

Related Important Links

UP Assistant Teacher 2021 (Super TET)

SUPER TET Syllabus 2021

SUPER TET Question Papers 2021

SUPER TET Cut Off 2021

SUPER TET Result 2021

SUPER TET Answer Key 2021 PDF

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Posted by:

KomalKomalMember since Jan 2020
Associate at Gradeup working under community vertical. BBA, MBA, JBT & CTET PAPER 1 QUALIFIED.
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