Definition:- Computer software can be explained as the set of programs or instructions that tell the computer hardware what to do and when to do it. You cannot touch or physically see the
computer software unlike computer hardware and it directs & guides the operations such as the input, process & output of a computer.
Example: The games you play on a computer, the songs you listen & the videos you watch on a computer, the documents you work on, and all the work you perform on your computer
are all software files.
Types of Computer Software
There are two types of computer software :
|Serial No.||Types of Computer Software|
I. System Software
The system software is responsible for controlling the overall operations of a computer system. And it has three components:
|Serial No.||Types of System Software|
1. Operating System (OS)
Definition:-The operating system (OS) can be defined as a software program that allows the computer hardware to communicate with the computer software. Without an OS the computer is useless and you cannot work on it. In other words, it works as an interface between the hardware and the user without which a computer does not run. When you buy a computer, it is already loaded with an installed operating system. Some commonly used operating systems are Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, Linux, Android (In mobile phones), etc.
Functions of an Operating System
● It controls & coordinates the working of various hardware components
● It acts as a resource manager & allocator. Since the computer system contains many resources like CPU time, memory space & input/output devices, the operating system is responsible for allocating these resources to specific applications or programs as per the requirement, whenever required.
● It also allows the user to store data in a computer efficiently by creating and managing different files & folders.
2. Language Processor
1. Software is created with programs or instructions written in computer languages. There are many computer languages that are used by programmers to develop different software like
C, C++, C#, Python, Java, etc. But we know a digital computer only understands discontinuous signals or binary numbers (0 and 1), also called the machine language.
2. A language processor, also known as a language translator is software that converts a program written in a computer language into machine language so that the computer can
understand the user instructions.
3. Utility Software
Definition:- Utility software is a program or an application that is used to perform maintenance or cleaning tasks on a computer to ensure its smooth functioning such as disk cleanup &
● Disk Cleanup: It searches for temporary files or files selected by you on drives and removes them from the system. Deleting such unwanted files frees up the occupied
● Antivirus Software: A few computer programs may disrupt the normal functioning of a computer by slowing it down and may even lead to system crash sometimes. To keep such harmful programs away from posing any threat to the system, antivirus software is required. Antivirus software scans your system for viruses and destroys them.
II. Application Software
Definition:- Application software is a program or set of programs that are designed to perform specific tasks for users. These software or applications are installed on a computer depending upon
a user’s requirements. There are many applications available to serve different purposes.
Application software can be further classified into two categories:-
|Serial No.||Types of Application Software|
|1.||General Application Software|
|2.||Special Application Software|
1. General Application Software
General application software is designed to serve the general needs & requirements of mass users. Some Commonly used general application software are :
|Serial No.||General Application Software||Definition||Example|
|1.||Word Processor||This application software is used for creating text-based documentation such as writing letters, reports, articles, stories, etc. All word processors also provide options for storing, editing, formatting and printing of these documents.||MS Word, WordPerfect, LibreOffice Writer etc.|
Such application software takes data values in the row & column format and allows users to analyse, manipulate & calculate data according to their requirements.
|MS Excel, LOTUS 1-2-3, LibreOffice Calc etc.|
This software allows users to create presentations or slide shows.
|MS Powerpoint, LibreOffice Impress, etc.|
|4.||Database Management System (DBMS)|
This application software is programmed to create, manage and store a large amount of data. It helps the user with data organization. DBMS is used by many business organizations to store details of customers, employees, products, etc.
|MS Access, Oracle, dBase, etc.|
This software is used to view, create or record any multimedia files such as images, sound & videos. They are also used for video/ image editing, animation & graphics.
|VLC Media Player, Windows Media Player, Picasa, Adobe Photoshop,|
Adobe Flash etc.
|6.||Web Browser||This software allows users to browse the internet.||Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, etc.|
2. Specific Application Software
Specific Application Software is designed to fulfill the specific requirements of a user or organization. They are also called customized software.
Example: Reservation system in airports and railways, banking software, billing software in supermarkets, etc. File Extension Computers can store a lot of data & organize it in different files & folders. There are different types of files that are stored in a computer like text, sound, images, videos, etc. The type of file can be easily identified by the computer from its extension which comes after the file name i.e. filename. filetype.
Some common file extensions are:
● .txt - simple text file
● .doc - MS Word file
● .docx - MS Word Open XML file
● .xls - MS Excel file
● .xlsm - MS Excel Open XML file
● .ppt - MS Powerpoint file
● .pptx - MS Powerpoint Open XML file
● .odt - Open document text file
● .pps - Power Point Slide Show
● .log - Log file generated by the computer to save user logins.
● .xml - XML file
● .jpg - JPEG Image file
● .png - Portable Network Graphic
● .mp3 - MP3 Audio file
● .mp4 - MPEG4 Video File
● .db- Database file
● .ZIP - Compressed files
● .pdf - Adobe Reader fileShortcut KeysShortcut Keys are important to save time while working on your computer.
Some common shortcut keys are given below:
|1.||Alt + F||To show file menu options|
|2.||Alt + E||To show edit options|
|3.||F1||To open help options|
|4.||Ctrl + A||To select all text|
|5.||Ctrl + X||To cut the selected items|
|6.||Ctrl + C||To copy the selected items|
|7.||Ctrl + V||To paste the selected items|
|8.||Ctrl + S||To save the selected items|
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