Eight stages of socialization by "Eric Erickson"
Infancy:- (Birth to 18 months) infants are born without any culture. They must be transformed by their parents. In this stage, infants face many challenges. The challenge related to establishing a sense of trust, confidence, and security that their world is a safe place. Parents play a key role in how the child meets this challenge.
Early childhood:- (18 months to 3 years) early childhood is commonly known as the "toy stage". in this stage the child learns to control and coordinate its muscles, walk, talk and understand different gestures and also learns to control its natural processes. Children spend much of their playtime doing something original with toys and play equipment. in this stage child's ability to ask a question.
Pre-school:- (3 to 6 years) when children are in preschool, they require help to develop their social skills and this is when preschool games can really come in handy. The Teacher can make use of many games and activities to help facilitate this development. With the help of these activities, the child learns to obey other adults besides its parents, develops a sense of equality with peers, plays games, and fits in the new routine of a school day. At this stage, the child learns to engage in their surroundings, and language development starts.
Later childhood :-(6 years to 12 years) this stage is known by many names such as the elementary stage, the troublesome stage, and the latency stage. During this stage, children learn the value of their societies. At this stage children engage themselves with academic activities, they enter school, they start making friends, Best friends are important at this stage. Whatever they learn and experience at this stage greatly influences their later life, academically and otherwise. They develop their creative potential at this stage.
Adolescence :-(13 years to 17 years) this stage is also known by the stage of “stress and storm”. Children face many social, biological, and personnel changes during this stage. These changes make adolescence a difficult period to manage so this is the most critical stage of development in a person’s life. Peer groups enormously influence socialization. Individuals must have a clear idea of their own beliefs and values.
Young Adulthood:- (18 years to 35 years) In this stage individuals falling in love as well as making close friends involves balancing the need to bond with the need to have a separate identity. Loneliness and isolation may occur if the individual is unsuccessful. They seek deep intimacy and satisfying relationships. They may help others in socialization at this stage.
Middle Adulthood:-(35 years to 65 years)In this stage individual focuses on his career and family. those who are successful at this stage will feel a sense of achievement and of having made a difference in society. they contribute to society by being an active member. Failure of this stage results in a feeling of the meaninglessness of life.
Maturity:- (65+ years)this stage of an individual is at the end of his life and career. People hope to look back on what they have accomplished with a sense of integrity and satisfaction.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2||Arihant Experts|
|2.||CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2||By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)|
|3.||Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education||Mangal S.K|
Note: All the study notes are available in Hindi as well as the English language. Click on A/अ to change the language.
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