As the UGC NET Exam is approaching, we will bring to you the best of articles relevant for Paper-1. Read them thoroughly and make notes from the. Today, we are posting Study Notes on Research Ethics for the upcoming UGC NET Exam 2020.
- Research ethics are the moral principles that govern the behaviours of the researcher and the research process.
- Ethics aim to achieve two fundamental objectives, that is, to tell us how we ought to act in a given situation and to provide us with a strong reason for doing so.
- Ethics state what the researcher should do and which things to avoid to maintain the credibility of the research.
- Ethics is broader than laws, and it is informal, and it also varies from time to time.
- An action may be legal but unethical or illegal but ethical.
- Ethics helps in bringing out the truth and avoiding errors while doing research.
- Ethics hold researchers accountable to the public.
- Ethics helps in building confidence among the participants: it tries to reduce the risk to participants, colleagues, and society while doing the research.
Elements of good research
- Researchers should maintain objectivity to avoid bias while doing the research.
- The researcher should be careful while doing research and avoid any mistakes or negligence.
- Data, results, methods and procedure should be maintained and interpreted honestly by the researcher.
- Prior approval of participants is necessary while collecting data about participants.
- After publishing the research, the researcher should open the data for scrutiny, and the researcher should be open to criticism.
- No duplication of data should be done by publishing research in more than one place.
- The researcher should maintain respect for intellectual property right such as Patents, copyrights and in other forms.
- The researcher should maintain confidentiality about participants data, a personal record and privacy issues.
- The researcher should keep in mind that all laws are followed while doing the research.
- Small gifts or incentives could be provided to participants with a token of appreciation after data collection.
Things to avoid
- In this, data is manipulated by researcher and researcher shows results which are not accurate.
- This is done by the researcher to prove his/her point in research by manipulating the data. This is ethically wrong.
- In this, the researcher adds data which does not exist in reality and is used by the researcher in studies.
- Creation of spurious data by a researcher, their recording, and drawing inference is wrong.
- In this, the researcher uses other people while claiming it to be their own.
- It is the act of appropriating somebody’s else’s ideas, thoughts, pictures, theories, words as your own.
- Researcher work ethics becomes questionable in this.
- It is an illegal and punishable act.
- Copying your own work from one research to another also amounts plagiarism. Therefore, to avoid this reference should be made.
- There are many websites and software available to check plagiarism.
- When one student copies from another student in the same submission it is called as Intra-Corpal Plagiarism.
- When a student has copies from an external source like a magazine, journal and web, etc., it is called as Extra-Corporal Plagiarism.
- When one sites one’s own work, then this is called as Autoplagiarism.
The issue with funds, incentives or gifts
- The researcher should not lure any participant by offering gift or incentives for providing data.
- Small gifts as a token of appreciation could be given.
- Funds allocated to research should not be used for any other purpose, and fake bills should not be submitted for claiming money.
Other important aspects of ethical research
Ethics has to be observed in every stage of the research process like:
- When the researcher collects information.
- While seeking the consent of Participants.
- While seeking confidential information and providing incentives to Participants.
- Even after conducting research, the researcher should make sure that no harm is done to participants like in medical testing, invasion of privacy, harassment and dehumanizing procedure.
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We hope you all understood Research Ethics for UGC NET Exam 2020.
Thank you, Team gradeup.