Meaning of Project work:
Project work is a sequence of activities that involve a group of students to study, do research, use their experiences, skills, interests, and capabilities in performing the given task assigned by the teacher.
According to W.H. Kilpatrick, “A project is a wholehearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment."
Types of the project:
There are two types of projects:
- Individual projects: These types of projects are performed by a single student. These projects lack in developing social skills among the children.
- Group Projects: These projects are performed by a group of children. These projects help in developing a feeling of belongingness and social skills among the students.
Purpose of project work:
- Project work enhances the understanding of students regarding different concepts
- Project work makes the learning process interesting and motivating.
- The project makes students sensitize towards changing needs and expectations of society.
- It constitutes as essential component in evaluation process.
- Project work develops the social skills among learners.
Components of a good project:
A good project has the following elements:
- A good project should be clearly stated beginning, middle, and end
- A good project should be based upon the real-world problem.
- A project must be based on sensitive issues related to current situations.
- A good project must be student-centered and student directed.
- The goal of good projects must be related to the curriculum and must be according to the goal.
- A good project should make connections between academic life and work skills.
- A good project should be tangible so that it can be shared or shown to others.
- A good project should provide a chance for reflective thinking and self-assessment to students.
Steps involved in project method:
Various are the steps involved in the project method are:
Creating Situation: This is the first step of the project method. In this, a teacher creates a proper situation related to the real-life world to the students. He/ she imparts the knowledge, method, procedure, steps or need of creating a project to the students.
Selection of a problem: In this step, a problem should be selected from the various problem by the student to carry on a project task. Here the principles of the topic should be taken into consideration first and after that student are allowed to choose the topic or problem according to their interest and ability.
Planning: In this step different viewpoint of the selected problem is discussed with the teachers by the students. Students are free to express their opinion here about a topic or problem after that teacher draws the entire procedure in the stepwise format on the blackboard. Here teacher act only as a guide but actual planning should leave on the students.
Executing the project: In this step students first collects relevant information and material. Here a teacher should only supervise the students. Teacher views the relationship between the initial plan and developing projects.
Evaluation: This step is done by both the teachers or students. They decide whether the desired objects of the projects are achieved or not and also freely criticize or express their views.
Reporting and recording: In this step each and every step of work is recorded in the book form. It should include the proposal, plan, discussion, and duties of students. The book form report than submitted to the teacher at the end.
The benefit of Project Based Instruction:
Following are the benefits of project-based instruction are:
- Project work develops critical thinking in the students
- Project work makes students sensitive towards changing societal needs or expectation.
- Project work enhances the understanding levels of the students.
- Project work connects learning at school with reality.
- Project work helps in engaging children from the diverse cultural background which allows them to use individual learning background.
- In project work, students are exposed to a wide range of skills and competencies.
- Project work allows learners to use their strength and diverse approaches in learning.
- Project work creates a feeling of self-esteem among children.
Challenges during the execution of project work:
Various are the challenges which a teacher, as well as students, face while executing the project:
- The project consumes a longer time than expected.
- Project work requires highly experienced teachers.
- Unavailability of resources for many projects.
- Parents do not always supportive of projects work.
- The project requires a lot of preparation from teachers as well as from the students’ side.
Precautions to be taken while preparing the projects:
Various are the precautions to be taken while preparing the projects are:
- While preparing the project make sure that the purpose of the project relates to the curriculum and performance standard.
- A teacher should make sure that the basic content of the project should cover the curriculum areas.
- All the group member should contribute to the completion of the project work before the deadline of the project.
- All members should try to fulfill their responsibility related to the project task.
- Children’s are free to select the project according to their capacities in order to avoid the challenges in the project work.