Intelligence is the global capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use available resources effectively when faced with challenges. It is a key construct employed to know how individuals differ from one another. It is the power of perceiving, learning, understanding, and knowing.
According to Alfred Binet:-
'Intelligence is the ability to judge well, understand well and reason well.'
According to Wechsler:-
'Intelligence is the global and aggregate capacity of an individual to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with his/her environment.'
CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE CONSTRUCT OF INTELLIGENCE
Intelligence possess by each individual is different from person to person, and intelligence itself is a big terminology it includes aptitude, interest, personality, and values. There are various assessment methods to have a glance at the critical perspective of the construct of intelligence. Several methods are used to measure the perspective of the intelligence:-
1. Psychological Test:- is an objective and standardized measure of an individual's mental and/or behavioural characteristics.
2. Interview:- involves seeking information from a person on a one-to-one basis.
3. Case Study:-is an in-depth study of the individual in terms of his/her psychological attributes, psychological history, and physical environment.
4. Observation:- involves employing systematic, organized, and objective procedures to record behavioural phenomena occurring naturally in real-time.
5. Self-report:- is a method in which a person provides factual information about himself/herself and/or opinions, beliefs, etc. that s/he holds.
INSIGHTS INTO THE CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE CONSTRUCT OF INTELLIGENCE
There are various approaches to know the critical perspective of the construct of intelligence:-
1. Psychometric Approach considers intelligence as an aggregate of abilities. It expresses the individual's performance in terms of a single index of cognitive abilities.
2. Information Approach-describe the processes people use in intellectual reasoning and problem-solving. The major focus of this approach is on how an intelligent person acts. It emphasizes studying cognitive functions underlying intelligent behaviour.
Alfred Binet was the first psychologist who tried to formalize the concept of intelligence in terms of mental operations. It arose from his interest in differentiating more intelligent from less intelligent individuals. His theory of intelligence is called Uni or the One-factor theory of intelligence.
Charles Spearman proposed a two-factor theory of intelligence employing a statistical method called factor analysis. He showed that intelligence consisted of a general factor(g-factor) and some specific factors (s-factors). The g-factor includes mental operations which are primary and common to all performances. In addition to the g-factor, he said that many specific abilities allow them to excel in their respective domains. For example:- Excellent Singers, architects, and athletes may be high on g-factor, but in addition to this, they have specific abilities which allow them to excel in their respective domains.
Louis Thurstone's theory- proposed theory of primary mental abilities. It states that intelligence consists of seven primary abilities:-
1. Verbal Comprehension
2. Numerical Abilities
3. Spatial Relations
4. Perceptual Speed
5. Word Fluency
7. Inductive Reasoning
Arthur Jensen proposed a hierarchical model of intelligence consisting of abilities operating at two levels, called Level -I and Level-II. Level I is associative learning in which output is more or less similar to the input. For example- rote learning and memory. Level II is called Cognitive Competence, involves high order skills as they transform the input to produce an effective output.
ASSESSMENT OF INTELLIGENCE
In 1905, Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon made the first attempt to measure intelligence. In 1908 the scale was revised they developed the concept of Mental Age. Mental Age is a measure of a person's intellectual development relative to people of his/her age group. A mental age of 6 means that a child performance on intelligence tests equals the average performance level of a group of 6 years old. Chronological Age (CA) is the biological age from birth. A bright child's MA is more than his/her CA: for a dull child, MA is below the CA.
VARIATION OF INTELLIGENCE
1. Intellectual Deficiency also knowns as Mentally Challenged or Mentally Retarded.
Levels of Retardation:-
2. Intellectual Giftedness- Intellectually gifted individuals show higher performance because of their outstanding potentialities.
Level of Giftedness:-
1. High Ability
2. High Creativity
3. High Commitment
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE CONSTRUCT OF INTELLIGENCE
1. Advanced logical thinking, questioning, and problem-solving behaviour are more powerful for the construction of intelligence.
2. High speed in processing information is a vital insight into the construction of intelligence.
3. Superior generalization and discrimination ability are critical for the construction of intelligence.
4. High level of intrinsic motivation and self-esteem is intrinsic for the person to develop a high level of intelligence.
5. Convergent and Divergent thinking is important to develop intellectual abilities and capabilities.
INTELLIGENCE TESTING IN INDIA
1. S.M.Mohsin made a pioneering attempt in constructing an intelligence test in Hindi in the 1930s.
2. C.H.Rice attempted to standardize Binet's test in Urdu and Punjabi.
3. Mahalanobis attempted to standardize Binet's test in Bengali. Attempts were also made by Indian researchers to develop Indian norms for some western tests including RPM, WAIS, and Kohs Block Design.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2||Arihant Experts|
|2.||CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2||By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)|
|3.||Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education||Mangal S.K|
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