A Fresh and Divided Nation:
- India faced a series of enormous challenges after its Independence. Like there was an urgent need to address the problems of refugees and the governance in princely states.
- The new nation had to follow a political system that would best serve the people's hopes and expectations.
- The population of India was huge and divided in 1947. It was possible to see a divide between high castes and low castes, between the dominant Hindu group and the Indians who were practising other religions.
- Farmers and peasants were dependent on the monsoon for their survival.
- The new nation had to lift its masses out of poverty and hence the productivity of agriculture and new job-creating industries were promoted.
- Cooperation and creation were needed to go hand in hand so that the tensions between Indian parts could be resolved. As violent conflicts could result — Examples-Hindus Vs Muslims High castes with low castes.
A Constitution is Written:
India's Constitution is a text setting out the political values, government powers, and rights of the country's citizens.
- It's India's supreme law.
- The Constituent Assembly's meetings were held in New Delhi, and representatives from all parts of India attended the meeting. These discussions resulted in the Indian Constitution being framed, which entered into force on January 26, 1950.
- The introduction of the Universal Adult Franchise was one of the provisions of the Constitution; all Indians over the age of 21 would be allowed to vote in national and state elections. This was a groundbreaking move as Indians were never allowed to select their representatives.
- They were ensuring that all men, regardless of their caste or religious affiliation, are equal before the law. That was the second feature of the Constitution.
- The Constitution's third function was that it gave special privileges to the poorest and most vulnerable group of Indians.
- The non-touch ability procedure was forbidden and was discontinued all over the country.
- Temples which were once opened only for higher castes were now open to everyone, including the untouchables or Harijans.
- Reservations in seats and jobs were also given to the Adivasis or Scheduled Tribes following the former untouchables.
Some Important Facts Related to the Constitution
- The Constituent Assembly spent several days debating the powers of the Central Government and the Government of the City. It was decided that the interest of the Center should be primarily as they will be able to think & plan for the country's well-being as a whole.
- The Constitution's agenda was to strike a balance of power between the Center and the States by including three lists of the Union list subjects, the State List, and the Concurrent List.
- The Union list has topics that are the responsibility of the Centre, such as taxation, security, and foreign affairs.
- The State agenda includes issues such as education and health, which the state will primarily take care of it.
- The Concurrent list covers forests, agriculture, etc. where the Center and the states will be jointly responsible.
- Hindi was known as India's Official Language', and English would be used in the courts, infrastructure, and correspondence between the two states.
- The chairman of the drafting committee, Dr B.R. Ambedkar, under whose guidance the Constitution was completed, played an essential role in shaping the Indian Constitution and was referred to as "the father of the Indian Constitution."
- The Indian National Congress revised its Constitution in the 1920s and reorganized its national branches based on linguistic (language) communities.
Prime Minister Nehru and Vice-Premier Vallabhbhai Patel rejected the establishment of language states.
In October 1952, a Gandhian veteran named Potti Sriramulu went on a hunger strike calling for Andhra Pradesh to be established to protect Telugu-speaking people's interests.
- Potti Sriramulu died on December 15, 1952, fifty-eight days before his fast. His death led to state-wide violence, and the central government was forced to cede to the demand.
- The new Andhra Pradesh state was created on October 1, 1953.
- After Andhra Pradesh was formed, separate states were also required by other linguistic communities. A State Reorganization Commission has therefore been set up.
According to Recommendations:
- North India's broad Hindi-speaking area was also to be split into several states.
- Bombay's bilingual state was split into separate states for speakers of Marathi & Gujarati.
- The province of Punjab was split into Punjab & Haryana
- One of the new nation's primary goals was to bring India and Indians out of poverty and build a modern technological and industrial base.
- The government established a Planning Commission in 1950 to assist in the design and implementation of suitable economic development policies. It was agreed that India would follow the' Mixed Economy ' model in which both public and private sectors co-existed for the nation's economic development.
- The second five-year plan, which focused mainly on the production of heavy industries in India, such as steel and the construction of large dams, was introduced in 1956. Both industries were under the state's direct control.
- After Independence, the Chhattisgarh steel plant in Bhilai was seen as a vital sign of the development of modern India.
India marked its 60th anniversary as a free nation on August 15, 2007. There have been many successes and setbacks in India over the past sixty years.
India's 60-year success
- Still a democratic and robust nation Democracy in diversity free press and an independent judiciary.
Failures over 60 years of India
- Deep divisions remain Notwithstanding constitutional guarantees that the untouchables or the Dalits face violence and discrimination, the gap between different religious groups has expanded in many states over the years.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||CTET Success Master Social Science/Studies Paper-2||Arihant Experts|
|2.||General Knowledge 2021||Manohar Pandey|
|3.||General Knowledge 2020||Arihant Experts|
|4.||Lucent's General Knowledge|
R. P. Suman, Vinay Karna, Sanjeev Kumar, Renu Sinha, Manvendra Mukul
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