As we all know the government of India already has made the provision of free and compulsory education for children between the ages of 6 to 14 years of age irrespective of their caste, religion, gender, color, disability, and language under the Indian Constitution RTE Act of 2009. So, in this way education for all brought the various communities like Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribes, disabled children, and girls into the mainstream of education. Educational for all works on the concept of inclusive education.
Inclusive education is a type of education where education is provided to all the students irrespective of their caste, religion, race, color, gender, and disabilities. Inclusive education provides an equal environment for all learners.
History of Inclusive education in India:
- District Education Programme, 1985
- National Policy on Education, 1986
- Integrated Education for the Disabled, a project started in 1987
- Sarva Siksha Abhiyan, 2000
- Making all schools ‘Disabled Friendly’ by 2020 (2005)
Categories of children who fall in inclusive education:
- The learner with Special education needs: Children with disabilities like visual, hearing, locomotor, and children’s having an intellectual disability.
- Children from disadvantaged and deprived communities.
- Children belonging to groups of child labor, street children, victims of natural catastrophes and social conflicts, ethnics, and religious minorities.
- Children belong to backward classes, SCs, STs, disabled, and girls.
Principle of inclusive education:
Following are the principles of inclusive education:
- Inclusive education believes individual differences as the source of richness and diversities and not as a problem.
- To provide equal educational opportunities for all children.
- There should not be any discrimination between schools.
Importance of Inclusive Education:
- Inclusive education helps disabled children to learn in the normal school environment.
- Inclusive education helps in developing a feeling of belongingness towards their peers, teachers, and society.
- Inclusive education helps normal children to learn more realistic and accurate views about disabled children.
- Inclusive education helps the families of normal children to teach their children about individual differences and the need to accept those who are different.
- Helps disabled children to feel that they are part of the community so that they will not feel isolated from the community.
Individual differences among learners:
We can easily observe the individual difference around us. We all know that not all individuals are exactly alike. The best example of individual differences is that no two children of the same parents are alike. In fact, the twin children of the same parents are identical to each other in but they have some differences in any other respect. No children are alike they may be different in some way from others.
Individual differences are classified into two categories i.e. inherited or acquired.
Inherited individual differences: These are those differences that are inherited in a child from birth. These differences are of two types of physical, mental or temperamental.
Acquired individual differences: These individual differences are acquired by the individual from the environment, society, cultural, educational or emotional.
Basis of individual differences:
1. Culture community and religion: Learner from socially and culturally background faces problem in excelling learners and the learner belonging to deprived classes like SCs and ST’s faces a problem in excelling education so, there is a need to bring them into the mainstream of education.
2. Gender: Individual differences also occur between men and women. Men are considered to have strong mental power than women while women are considered more emotional than men.
3. The diversity of language: Diversity in the classroom also creates individual differences among learners. As different students from different communities are present in the classroom having different languages which creates difficulty for the teacher as well as students in the teaching-learning process.
4. Family: Student in a classroom comes from different families having different personalities creates individual differences in various factors like the background of a child, treatment by parents, education causes variations in the classroom.
5. Emotions: Emotions of a child affect learning and creates individual differences in the child because some children are mature while others are immature or unstable.
6. Physical differences: Physical differences like height, weight, color, hairs, eyes, structure, etc create individual differences in the classroom.
7. Personality and attitude: The attitude of each and every child is different. Children’s with highly structured attitudes provided faster affective and cognitive responses than those children who are not well-structured attitude. While children also have different personalities and behavior creates variation in the classroom.
8. Aptitude, intelligence, and learning styles: Aptitude, intelligence, and learning styles of learners are different. Some learners have high intelligence, aptitude, high grasping power, high cognitive abilities while some have low thus creates variation in learning.
Importance of Understanding individual differences in education:
It is very important for a teacher to understand the individual differences of each and every learner so that effective teaching-learning takes place. A teacher should understand the various psychological, personal, social, religious, and other factors within the classroom.
The following method is useful in understanding individual differences in education:
- A teacher should decide teaching-learning strategies according to the individual differences of students in the class.
- Develop a curriculum that suits the needs of individual differences needs.
- Consider the individual differences of the class and construct the environment in such a way so that it provides equal opportunities to all.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2||Arihant Experts|
|2.||CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2||By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)|
|3.||Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education||Mangal S.K|
Note: All the study notes are available in Hindi as well as the English language. Click on A/अ to change the language.
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