- It is the process of starting or restarting the computer.
- It can be initiated by hardware such as a button press, or by a software command.
- During booting, the files of the operating system are executed.
- The processing at the time of switching on the computer is known as cold booting.
- When the computer is restarted, it is known as hot or warm booting.
- Restarting a computer also is called rebooting, which can be "hard", e.g. after electrical power to the CPU is switched from off to on, or "soft", where the power is not cut.
- Hibernation in computing is powering down a computer while retaining it the state in which it is.
- After the computer is in a hibernation state, the computer saves the contents of its random-access memory (RAM) to a hard disk or other non-volatile storage.
- Upon resumption, the computer is exactly as it was before entering hibernation.
- It is low power mode for computer, laptop or any other electronic device.
- This mode saves electricity consumption as compared to leaving the device on and idle. After the user resume to work, it allows the computer or laptop to avoid a reboot.
- Random Access Memory is the internal storing memory of the CPU.
- It stores internal data, program and program result.
- It is a read/write memory which stores data until the machine is working. After the machine is switched off, data is erased.
- It is volatile, it means the data is lost when there is a power failure or when the computer is switched off.
- Therefore, a backup Uninterruptible Power System (UPS) is used to keep the computer running in any event of power failure or sudden turning off of a computer.
- RAM is small in terms of its physical size and in the amount of data it can hold.
RAM is of two types:
Static RAM (SRAM)
- As the word indicate, static means till the power remains on the memory retains the content and when the power is out the data is lost.
- It used SRAM chips as a matrix of 6-transistors and no capacitors. It is not required to be refreshed on regular basis.
Characteristic of SRAM
- Longer life
- Doesn't required to be refreshed on regular basis.
- It is fast
- It is used as cache memory
- It is of large size
- It is expensive
- High power consumption
Dynamic RAM (DRAM)
- It must be continually refreshed for maintaining the data.
Characteristics of DRAM
- Shorter data life.
- Needs continuous refreshing.
- It is slower as compared to SRAM.
- It is used as RAM.
- It is smaller in size.
- It is less expensive.
- It consumes less power.
- It stands for Read-Only Memory.
- In this memory, we can only read but cannot write on it.
- It is non-volatile. It means the information is stored permanently.
- ROM comes inbuilt in the device. The chip is installed in electronic devices to complete their function smoothly.
- This memory remains even without a power supply.
Types of ROM
MROM (Masked ROM)
- It was the first ROMs hard-wired devices that contained a pre-programmed set of instructions or data.
- It is expensive.
PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory)
- It is read-only memory that a user can modify only once.
- The user buys and enters the desired content in a blank PROM.
- Inside it, small fuses are burnt during programming.
- It is programmed only once and it cannot be erasable.
EPROM (Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory)
- It can be erased by exposing it to ultra-violet light for 40 minutes duration.
- EPROM eraser is used to erase data.
- An electrical charge is trapped in an insulated region during programming and this charge is retained for more than 10 years because there is no leakage path.
- For erasing the above-mentioned charge, UV light is used.
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory)
- In this, programming and erasing is done electronically.
- In this, programming an erasing can be done about ten thousand times.
- It only takes 4 to 10 ms (millisecond) to programme or erase.
- Any location can be erased and programmed selectively.
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