Study Notes on Important terms on ICT

By Ashwani Tyagi|Updated : July 27th, 2021



  • It is the process of starting or restarting the computer.
  • It can be initiated by hardware such as a button press, or by a software command.
  • During booting, the files of the operating system are executed.
  • The processing at the time of switching on the computer is known as cold booting.
  • When the computer is restarted, it is known as hot or warm booting.


  • Restarting a computer also is called rebooting, which can be "hard", e.g. after electrical power to the CPU is switched from off to on, or "soft", where the power is not cut.


  • Hibernation in computing is powering down a computer while retaining it the state in which it is.
  • After the computer is in a hibernation state, the computer saves the contents of its random-access memory (RAM) to a hard disk or other non-volatile storage.
  • Upon resumption, the computer is exactly as it was before entering hibernation.

Sleep mode

  • It is low power mode for computer, laptop or any other electronic device.
  • This mode saves electricity consumption as compared to leaving the device on and idle. After the user resume to work, it allows the computer or laptop to avoid a reboot.


  • Random Access Memory is the internal storing memory of the CPU.
  • It stores internal data, program and program result.
  • It is a read/write memory which stores data until the machine is working. After the machine is switched off, data is erased.
  • It is volatile, it means the data is lost when there is a power failure or when the computer is switched off.
  • Therefore, a backup Uninterruptible Power System (UPS) is used to keep the computer running in any event of power failure or sudden turning off of a computer.
  • RAM is small in terms of its physical size and in the amount of data it can hold.

RAM is of two types:

Static RAM (SRAM)

  • As the word indicate, static means till the power remains on the memory retains the content and when the power is out the data is lost.
  • It used SRAM chips as a matrix of 6-transistors and no capacitors. It is not required to be refreshed on regular basis.

Characteristic of SRAM

  • Longer life
  • Doesn't required to be refreshed on regular basis.
  • It is fast
  • It is used as cache memory
  • It is of large size
  • It is expensive
  • High power consumption

Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

  • It must be continually refreshed for maintaining the data.

Characteristics of DRAM

  • Shorter data life.
  • Needs continuous refreshing.
  • It is slower as compared to SRAM.
  • It is used as RAM.
  • It is smaller in size.
  • It is less expensive.
  • It consumes less power.


  • It stands for Read-Only Memory.
  • In this memory, we can only read but cannot write on it.
  • It is non-volatile. It means the information is stored permanently.
  • ROM comes inbuilt in the device. The chip is installed in electronic devices to complete their function smoothly. 
  • This memory remains even without a power supply.

Types of ROM

MROM (Masked ROM)

  • It was the first ROMs hard-wired devices that contained a pre-programmed set of instructions or data.
  • It is expensive.

PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory)

  • It is read-only memory that a user can modify only once.
  • The user buys and enters the desired content in a blank PROM.
  • Inside it, small fuses are burnt during programming.
  • It is programmed only once and it cannot be erasable.

EPROM (Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory)

  • It can be erased by exposing it to ultra-violet light for 40 minutes duration.
  • EPROM eraser is used to erase data.
  • An electrical charge is trapped in an insulated region during programming and this charge is retained for more than 10 years because there is no leakage path.
  • For erasing the above-mentioned charge, UV light is used.

EEPROM (Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read-Only Memory)

  • In this, programming and erasing is done electronically.
  • In this, programming an erasing can be done about ten thousand times.
  • It only takes 4 to 10 ms (millisecond) to programme or erase.
  • Any location can be erased and programmed selectively.

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We hope you all understood the important terms related to ICT for UGC NET Exam.

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Ashwani TyagiAshwani TyagiMember since Jun 2020
UGC NET Qualified 3 times (history)
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Yajnaseni Biswal
Sir plz online re exm heithiba  paper 1 subject mark kate kuhanthu..plz plz sir
Puja Verma

Puja VermaNov 2, 2020

.a nice to see

BanooDec 1, 2020

Hello sir i want information bout  subscripation  of genral paper
Nivedita Dahake
Can I get information in hindi
Parul Bajpai

Parul BajpaiMar 21, 2021

Thank you so much 😊😊
Pradip Dutta

Pradip DuttaMar 21, 2021

Sir please give us notes on indian logic .
thank you so much Sir
Pooja Maurya

Pooja MauryaMar 21, 2021

Thanks a lot sir 🙏🙏🙏

NeetuMar 21, 2021

Dhhanyawad  sir ji

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