Study Notes on Important terms on ICT for Paper-1

By Ashwani Tyagi|Updated : July 27th, 2021

Continuing from our last week post on Important terms related to ICT, we are posting the next set of Terms that are Important from Paper-1 perspective.                                                                                                                                                                           

Continuing from our last week post on Important terms related to ICT, we are posting the next set of Terms that are Important from Paper-1 perspective.


  • A person who breaks into a computer through a network, without authorization and with mischievous or destructive intent


  • A hardware or software problem that causes information to be lost or the computer to malfunction. Sometimes a crash can cause permanent damage to a computer.


  • Slang for internet ie. An international conglomeration of interconnected computer networks. Begun in the late 1960s, it was developed in the 1970s to allow government and university researchers to share information. The Internet is not controlled by any single group or organization. Its original focus was research and communications, but it continues to expand, offering a wide array of resources for business and home users.


  • A collection of similar information stored in a file, such as a database of addresses. This information may be created and stored in a database management system (DBMS).


  • The pre-defined configuration of a system or an application. In most programs, the defaults can be changed to reflect personal preferences.


  • The main directory of the user interface. Desktops usually contain icons that represent links to the hard drive, a network (if there is one), and a trash or recycling can for files to be deleted. It can also display icons of frequently used applications, as requested by the user.


  • Two distinct types. The names refer to the media inside the container:
  • A hard disc stores vast amounts of data. It is usually inside the computer but can be a separate peripheral on the outside. Hard discs are made up of several rigid coated metal discs. Currently, hard discs can store 15 to 30 Gb (gigabytes).


  • Represents an IP (Internet Protocol) address or set of IP addresses that comprise a domain. The domain name appears in URLs to identify web pages or in email addresses. For example, the email address for the First Lady is,, being the domain name. Each domain name ends with a suffix that indicates what top level domain it belongs to. These are : .com for commercial, .gov for government, .org for organization, .edu for educational institution, .biz for business, .info for information, .tv for television, .ws for website. Domain suffixes may also indicate the country in which the domain is registered. No two parties can ever hold the same domain name.

Domain name

  • The name of a network or computer linked to the Internet. Domains are defined by a common IP address or set of similar IP (Internet Protocol) addresses.


  • A text-based expression of emotion created from ASCII characters that mimics a facial expression when viewed with your head tilted to the left. Here are some examples:
  • Smiling
  • Frowning
  • Winking
  • Crying


  • The process of transmitting scrambled data so that only authorized recipients can unscramble it. For instance, encryption is used to scramble credit card information when purchases are made over the Internet.


  • A set of security programs that protect a computer from outside interference or access via the Internet.


  • Software created by people who are willing to give it away for the satisfaction of sharing or knowing they helped to simplify other people's lives. It may be free-standing software, or it may add functionality to existing software.


  • File Transfer Protocol, a format and set of rules for transferring files from a host to a remote computer.

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We hope you all understood the terms related to ICT for Paper-1.

Thank you, Team gradeup.

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Ashwani TyagiAshwani TyagiMember since Jun 2020
UGC NET Qualified 3 times (history)
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