Study Notes on Higher Education Policy in India
Education Policy In India
1. National Education Policy 1968 -
- First education Policy in India was introduced in 1968 based on the recommendation of the Kothari Commission (1964).
- Three language formulas and developing regional language were among the significant policy objectives. It aimed for the creation of the Centres of advanced study and 'Cluster of Centres'.
- The Policy also proposed that considerable care should be taken while establishing new universities. It also asked to develop Correspondence and Part-time Higher Education Courses on a large scale.
- Target was set to reach the National Education expenditure to 6% of India's National Income.
2. National Education Policy 1986 -
- It Introduced the concept of 'National System of Education' which implies that up to a given level, all students, irrespective of caste, creed, location or sex have access to education of comparable quality.
- It envisages a common educational structure, i.e. 10 + 2 + 3, which was recommended by Kothari Commission (1964-66).
- It calls for the development of Autonomous Colleges and Departments. It gave a push to the Open University system and Distance Education program in India through institutions like IGNOU.
- It also introduced the idea of Rural University and Institution. A National Research Foundation was proposed to fund all the research programmes.
- The Policy recommends that the institutions of national importance like UGC, NCERT, NIEPA, AICTE, ICAR, IMC etc. will be strengthened to enable them to give shape to the national system of education.
3. National Education Policy 1992
- It is a modified version of NPE 1986.
- It envisages conducting a common entrance examination on all India basis for admission to professional and technical programmes in the country.
- It proposed a revised plan for achieving 'National System of Education'.
4. National Education Policy 2019
- It's a comprehensive document submitted by MHRD prepared based on the recommendation of S.R. Subramanian Committee report and K. Kasturirangan Committee report.
- It proposes a new Curricular and Pedagogical Structure, with 5+3+3+4 design covering the children in the age group 3-18 years.
- The Policy Proposes to create a new State School Regulatory Authority (SSRA).
- It wishes to consolidate 800 universities & 40,000 colleges into around 15,000 large, multidisciplinary institutions.
- The Policy proposes to introduce three types of Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs): Research Universities, Teaching Universities and Autonomous degree-granting colleges.
- It Proposes to set up an autonomous body called the National Research Foundation (NRF) through an Act of Parliament.
- MHRD to be renamed as the Ministry of Education (MoE).
- It aims to universalize the pre-primary education by 2025 and provide foundational literacy/numeracy for all by 2025.
- An Apex body - Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog or the National Education Commission to be constituted. It will be chaired by the Prime Minister.
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