Discovery of Harappa :
Harrapan civilization was first excavated by Sir John Marshall in 1921. It was a bronze age civilization that existed in South Asia. Indus valley civilization flourished in the basins of Indus River. This civilization was spread over a vast area including not only the Indus plain but also Northern Rajasthan and the region of Kathiawar in Western India.
Features of Indus Valley Civilization:
Following are some of the features of Indus Valley Civilization:
1. One of the most important features of Indus Valley Civilization was systematic town planning on the basis of the grid system which divided the city into several rectangular blocks.
2. Kalibangan, a site of Harappa had two major parts - on the west ‘citadel’ (used for public gathering) and the other was the lower town (consists of residential areas).
3. This civilization used large scale use of bricks in building and the use of stone was extensively founded only at Dholavira.
4. The underground drainage system was found in all the houses which were connected to the streets.
5. Houses were present on both sides of the streets and these houses had one side entrance with no windows facing the main street.
6. Street also had the arrangement of street lighting.
7. The houses had kitchens and bathrooms, 4 to 6 living rooms, large houses with 30 rooms and a staircase.
Major Cities of Indus Valley Civilization:
Some of the major cities of Indus Valley Civilization:
1. Mohenjo-Daro (Sind, Pakistan) :
It was one of the largest cities of the Indus valley situated on the right bank of the Indus valley. The great bath was situated and people used to take a spiritual bath there. Granary was the largest building, multi-pillar assembly hall, and big rectangular building used for administrative purposes.
2. Kalibangan (Rajasthan):
Kalibangan means “black bangles” and this site is situated on the southern bank of the Ghaggar rivers in the Ganganagar district, Rajasthan. The city had pre-Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. Pre-Harrapan phase discovered the parallelogram citadel.
3. Lothal and Dholavira (Gujarat):
Lothal is located beside a tributary of Sabarmati, in Gujarat, close to the Gulf of Khambhat, and Dholavira is situated at Kutch district. At Lothal evidence on the use of rice, fire altars, seals, and granary found.
Located on the left bank of river Indus and it is the first Indus site to be excavated first in 1921.
a. Life in the Harrapan city:
The life was busy, matriarchal society found, the merchants were the most dominant group, both men and women fond of ornaments (like- necklace, finger-rings, bangles, anklets, bracelets, etc.), people enjoyed dancing singing, fishing, gambling, etc.
b. Houses, Drains, and Street:
Houses were two-storeyed, rooms built around a courtyard, water overflowed from the houses drains on the streets which had a street, underground drainage system founded, drains were made up of mortar, lime, gypsum, etc and was covered with bricks which shows their sense of hygiene and grid system was a common feature.
c. Industry in Harappan Civilization:
People of Harappa engaged in cutting stone, polishing beads, carving seals, metallurgy, ivory work, and craftwork, evidence of ship industry founded.
Agriculture was the backbone of this society. People used a wooden plow, stone stickles for harvesting, people grow wheat, barley, dates, peas, sesame, mustard, ragi, bajra, and jowar.
e. Religious life in Harappa:
Peoples worshipped Pasupathi Mahadeva and a terra cotta figure of mother goddess where a plant is shown growing out of the embryo of a woman. No temples were found. Pipal, bull, dove, the pigeon was worshipped and they also believed in evil spirit.
End of Harappan Civilization:
Harappan civilization was ended around 3900 years ago. Archaeologists and scholars suggest the downfall of this civilization was due to the dried up of rivers, deforestation. The main cause of deforestation was the use of firewood for banking bricks and the smelting of copper ores and overgrazing of green cover by cattle.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
CTET Success Master Social Science/Studies Paper-2 for Class 6 to 8 2020
|2.||12 YEAR-WISE CTET Paper 2 (Social Science/ Studies) Solved Papers (2011 - 2019) - 2nd English Edition|
CTET Social Science and Its Pedagogy
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