- The decline of the Sultanate of Delhi gave birth to two mighty states in South India the Bahmani Kingdom of Gulbarga and the Vijayanagara Empire.
- The Bahmanis were Muslim rulers, while the rulers of the Vijayanagar were Hindus.
- The Bahmani kingdom was founded by Zafar Khan (Hassan) who took the title of Alauddin Bahman Shah. He selected Gulbaraga as its capital and renamed it Ahsanabad.
- There was a total of eighteen Sultans and they ruled from 1347 to 1527.
- Muhammed Gawan was the famous minister of the Bahmini kingdom.
- The last prince of the Bahmani Kingdom was Kalimullah.
- By 1527, the Bahmani kingdom was split up into five independent principalities.
- The Adil Shahis of Bijapur -founder – Yusuf Adilshah (1489 - 90)
- The Nizam Shahis of Ahamadnagar - founder - Malik Ahmad (1499)
- The Imadshahis of Berar - founder -Fateh Ulla Imadshanti (1490)
- The Qutubshahi kingdom of Golconda – founder - Qutabshah (1512)
- The Baridshahis of Bidar - founder - Amir Ali Barid (1527).
- Muhammad Adil Shah built Gol Gumbaz, a tomb with the world's second-largest Dome at Bijapur
- Muhammad shah built the city of Hyderabad (Bhagyanagar)
- Berar stayed out of the Battle of Talikotta
Vijaya Nagara Empire:
- The founders of the Vijaya Nagar Empire were Harihara and Bukka Rai, the revenue officers of the Kakatiya ruler Pratap Rudra Deva II of Warrangal.
- They founded the dynasty in 1336 with the capital Vijaya Nagara on the banks of the Tungabhadra river with the help of Saint Vidyaranya.
- Vijayanagara kingdom lasted for 230 years and produced four dynasties.
- Sangama (1336 - 1485)
- Saluva - (1485 - 1505)
- Tuluva (1505 - 1565) and
- Aravidu (1565 - 1672)
- Krishna Deva Raya (1509 - 1529) belonged to the Tuluva dynasty. The Italian traveller Nicolocont visited his court.
- Krishnadeva Rayar is known as ‘Andhra Bhoja’ He wrote Ushaparinayam and Amuktamalyada
- Allasani Peddanna, a Telugu poet was a courtier of Krishna Deva Raya. He is considered the ‘‘Andra Kavita Pitamaha’’ the Grand Father of Telugu poetry.
- ‘Ashtadiggajas’ was the famous Scholastic Assembly in the court of Krishna Deva Raya.
Vijayanagar Empire was visited by many foreign travellers:
- Nicolo Conti - a Venitian traveller, who visited during the reign of Devaraya I.
- Abdur Razzak: Ambassador of Sulthan Shahrukh to the court of Devaraya II.
- Damingos Paes: He visited Krishna Devaraya’s court.
- Ferona Nuniz: A Portuguese who visited during Achyuta Raya’s reign.
- Durate Barbosa: A Portuguese who visited Krishnadeva Raya’s court.
- Athanasius Nikitin (1415): He was a Russian, who visited during Deva Raya I’s period He wrote, ‘Voyage to India’.
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