In the previous article "Modern History of Bihar Part -1, we have covered from the arrival of Europeans to Champaran Satyagraha. In this article, we are providing complete study material From the Role of Bihar in the freedom movement to Post-Independence history.
Modern History of Bihar Part-2
Role of Bihar in the freedom movement:
- MOTHERLAND newspaper was started in September 1921 by Mazhar-ul-Haque to propagate Hindu-Muslim unity.
- Non-Cooperation Movement - Gandhiji led picketing of liquor shops in December 1920
- J P Narayan left Patna College before his examination to participate in the movement.
- All India Congress Session December 1922, Gaya presided by Chittaranjan Das. It saw two factions of the Congress clashonentry to Legislative Council.
- Pro-changers - C R Das, Motilal Nehru, Vitthalbhai Patel, and Ajmal Khan
- No-changers - Vallabhbhai Patel, C Rajagopalachari and M A Ansari
- Pro-changers formed Swaraj Dal with Narayan Prasad as Chairman and Abdul Bari as Secretary
- A branch of Swaraj Dal was formed in Bihar in 1923 under Srikrishna Singh. However, it was not very effective in Bihar
- The boycott of the Simon Commission was led by Anugrah Narayan Sinha
- Chhapra Jail Strike - as a protest against lathi charge on Rajendra Prasad and Abdul Bari.
- Civil Disobedience movement - Peasants also refused to pay chaukidari tax.
- Swadeshi Committee was set up in Patna for organizing events.
- Sacchidanand Sinha, Hasan Imam, Chandravati Devi, Ramsunder Singh
- Bihpur Satyagraha was carried out around the same time.
- Bihar Socialist Party formed by Ganga Sharan Sinha, Rambriksha Benipuri and Ramanand Mishra in 1931
- Bihar Congress Socialist Party formed in 1934 with J P Narayan as General Secretary and Acharya Narayan Dev as President
- General Elections, 1937 after the GoI act 1935 provided for some provincial autonomy, Congress got the majority in both Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council but refused to form the government.
- Later Mohammad Yunus became first Prime Minister of Bihar of minority govt.
- 3 months later on 20 July 1937, Sri Krishna Singh became the premier and formed the cabinet.
- Ramdayalu Singh as first Speaker of Legislative Council
- Abdul Bari as first deputy Speaker of Legislative Council.
- Bihar Tenancy Amendment Act removed problems of Kashtkari Bandobast
- Sheel Bhadra Yajee joined Subhash Chandra Bose to found All India Forward Bloc and was also associated with the
- Quit India Movement - National Flag was unfurled at the Legislative Assembly
- Kisan Sabha organized by MohammadZubair and SrikrishnaSingh in 1922
- Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha was formed by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati in 1929 against Zamindari attacks.
- Zamindars also formed the United Political Party to suppress peasants
- Bihar Kisan Sabha was formed in 1933
- In 1936, when All India Kisan Sabha was formed at Lucknow, Swami Sahajanand Saraswati was its President.
- Peasant movement was an important side effect of the independence movement aimed at overthrowing the feudal zamindari system. It was led by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
- HUNKAR - Hindi weekly of the peasant movement in Bihar by Pandit Yamuna Karjee and Rahul Sanskrityayan in 1940
Ho and Munda
Singbhum and Birbhum
Sidhu and Kanhu
- Revolts were mainly against British annexation of land or their revenue policy or occupation by outsiders or for forest rights. They were localized, unorganized and very violent.
- Santhal Pargana was created by the British to pacify the Santhal uprising. Kanhu was arrested in 1866.
- Munda Revolt - Forest Regulation Act 1865 empowered the British govt. to declare any forest land as Government Forest and make rules for it. Under Birsa Munda, it was a socio-religious movement (Ulgulan) with agrarian and political content. Birsa was captured on 3rd March 1900.
- Tana Bhagat Movement - mainly a religious movement with the adoption of Hindu practices.
- First President of India Dr Rajendra Prasad was from Bihar
- First Governor of Bihar - Jairamdas Daulatram
- First Chief Minister of Bihar - Dr Krishna Singh
- On 15 November 2000, the modern state of Jharkhand was carved out from southern Bihar.