State PCS Notes: Miscellaneous Notes on Biology

By Arun Bhargava|Updated : August 14th, 2019

Questions from General Science are frequently being asked in the state PCS exams like UPPSC, BPSC, MPPSC, APPSC, etc. In this post, we are providing you with comprehensive notes on DNA, RNA, Virus, and Bacteria. 

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) 

  • DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid, it was discovered by Frederic Mischer.
  • DNA is a double-stranded molecule made up of an elongated chain of sub-units called nucleotides.
  • DNA is mainly found in the nucleus and in small amount it is also found in mitochondria an chloroplast.
  • Chemically a nucleotide has three components.

(1) Nitrogenous base

(2) Pentose Sugar

(3) Phosphate group.

  • The nitrogenous base is of two types i.e.Purine & Pyrimidines. 
  • Purines contain two nitrogen base i.e. Adenine and Guanine.
  • Pyrimidine nitrogen bases are Thymine and Cytosine, thus there are four kinds of nucleotide present in DNA i.e. Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine.

Structure of DNA

  • Watson and Crick give the structural model of DN
  • DNA molecule is consists of two polynucleotide strand, forming a double helix structure.
  • Each strand has a backbone of sugar and phosphate, nitrogen base is attached to the sugar.
  • Two strands are joined together by hydrogen bonds between the bases.
  • Adenine pairs with thymine whereas guanine pairs with cytosine.
  • Adenine and thymine are complementary to each other and cytosine is complementary to guanine.

Functions of DNA

  • DNA is genetic material and contains genetic information in coded form.
  • DNA has two main function replication and expression.

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)  

  • RNA stands for Ribonucleic acid.
  • RNA is single-stranded nucleic acid made up of phosphate, a ribose sugar and nitrogen base uracil, adenine, guanine, and cytosine.
  • It is found in the nucleus as well as cytoplasm.
  • Its main function is to synthesise the protein.
  • RNA is of three kinds.

    1.Messenger RNA (mRNA): It brings the message from DNA found in the nucleus to cytoplasm in the coded form.

     2.Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): Present in ribosome which is the site of protein synthesis.

     3.Transfer RNA (t RNA): It is the carrier of amino acid and transfers it to the ribosome.

Difference between RNA and DNA

DNA & RNA

Virus

  • Virus was discovered by Russian Scientist Iavanosky during the test of Mosaic disease in Tobacco.
  • Virus acts as a link between the living and non-living.
  • Virus is dead but when it comes in contact with the living cell it gets activated.
  • ‘The virus in which RNA  is found as the genetic material is called Retrovirus.
  • Virus is of three types:
  1. Plant Virus: RNA is present as its nucleic acid
  2. Animal Cell: DNA and sometimes RNA is found in it.
  3. Bacteriophage: They kill the bacteria e.g. T-2 phage.

Bacteria

  • Bacteria was discovered by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek and its study is known as bacteriology.
  •  Bacteria is of different types on the basis of shape:
  1. Bacillus: This is a rod-like or cylindrical.
  2. Round or Cocus: These are round and smallest bacteria.
  3. Comma shape or vibrio
  4. Spirillum: Spring or Screw shaped.
  • Anabaena and Nostoc cyanobacteria fixed the atmospheric nitrogen into the soil.

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Arun BhargavaArun BhargavaMember since Aug 2018
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Arindam Naskar
WBPSC Ke upor koi course Start kariena sir.
S.k. Arya

S.k. AryaAug 14, 2019

Ma'am, your each and every post is very useful for us.
Thank you so much for helping us 🙏

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