State Formation in India - List of Indian States and Their Formation Dates

By Shubhra Anand Jain|Updated : August 25th, 2022

State Formation In India began in 1947 at the time of Independence when India consisted of 571 disjointed princely states, which were later merged to form 27 states. Initially, grouping states was based on political and historical considerations rather than being a linguistic or cultural division. But that organization lasted only for a short term.

After some time, there were several demands from people for several different formations of Indian States because of diverse reasons. Also, it was felt by the government to look into the need for the organization of states on a linguistic basis as the regions of the country were multilingual. As a result, several committees were formed, and acts were passed on whose basis states and union territories were formed.

State Formation in India is an essential topic in Modern Indian History. Being well informed about the Indian state's establishment and union territories helps you score in the IAS examination.

Table of Content

Formation of Indian States on Linguistic Grounds

Several attempts were made and rejected for the formation of States in India based on linguistic grounds. Two distinct bodies were set up to evaluate the requirements for the division of Indian states based on the languages of the folks.

Download Short Notes on State Formation Dates PDF

Dhar Commission - Linguistic Provinces Commission

On June 17, 1948, the linguistic province's commission was set by the constituent assembly to look into the need to form states on a linguistic basis. S. K. Dhar, the judge of Allahabad High court, was appointed as the head. On December 10, 1948, the commission submitted a report. The commission rejected the idea of reorganization based on language and suggested it be done based on administrative convenience, including historical and geographical considerations.

JVP Committee

By December 1948, the JVP Committee was formed to re-examine the need for reorganization of Indian states on a linguistic basis and study the recommendations of the Dhar Commission. The committee consisted of Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Pattabhi Sitaramayya. The committee submitted its report in April 1949, according to which the plan of division based on language got rejected.

Linguistic Reorganisation of States

As the government dissolved the plan for the formation of states in India based on linguistic division, there were protests in several regions of the country. The Kannada, Malayalam, and Marathi-speaking people wanted their state. Over time the agitation got intense.

The most vigorous protest came from that of the Telugu-speaking people from the region, which was back then the Madras Presidency. During the 1952 general election propaganda, the people of this region showed their disagreement with Nehru with black flags and raised demand for a separate state of Andra for the Telugu-speaking people.

The hunger strike: By October, an individual named Potti Sriramalu, a veteran Gandhian, went on a hunger strike seeking a separate state of Andra for the Telugu speakers. The strike went on for 58 days. More people gathered for support, and there were protests in various towns. Finally, on December 15, 1952, Potti Sriramalu faced death due to a hunger strike. Unable to control the widespread protest, the government was forced to accept their demand.

The state of Andhra Pradesh was formed on October 1, 1953. It was the first state to be included on a Linguistic basis.

Formation of States Reorganization Commission

With the formation of the linguistic state of Andhra Pradesh, there were similar demands for creating states based on language all over the country. By December 1953, Jawaharlal Nehru formed the States Reorganization Commission (SRC) to study the new demands. The commission consisted of Fazil Ali, H.N. Kunzru and K.M. Panikkar.

The commission submitted its report by 1955. Its main idea was to protect unity, integrity, linguistic and cultural homogeneity, and financial, economic, and administrative viability. Based on its report, it came up with a recommendation of dividing the country into 16 states and three centrally administered areas.

States Reorganization Act, 1956

The government didn't agree with the recommendation of the state reorganization commission to divide the country into 14 states and six union territories under the States Reorganization Act, 1956. According to this act, the boundaries of Indian states and territories were organized on linguistic lines.

The states formed under States Reorganization Act were:

  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. Assam
  3. Bihar
  4. Bombay
  5. Jammu and Kashmir
  6. Kerala
  7. Madhya Pradesh
  8. Madras
  9. Mysore
  10. Orissa
  11. Punjab
  12. Rajasthan
  13. Uttar Pradesh
  14. West Bengal

The union territories formed under States Reorganization Act were:

  1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  2. Delhi
  3. Himachal Pradesh
  4. Laccadive
  5. Minicoy
  6. Amindivi Islands
  7. Manipur
  8. Tripura

Formation of New States in India - Timeline

  • In 1960, following the violence and agitation, the state of Bombay was divided to form Gujarat and Maharashtra.
  • In 1963, the state of Nagaland was created for the Nagas. It was meant to protect their culture and ethnicity. However, the division was also done based on geographical reasons.
  • The regions under France and Portugal colonies, namely-Chandernagore, Mahe, Yaman, Karaikal, Goa, Dam, and Diu, were either made to join with neighbouring states or union territories once they joined with India.
  • Punjab reorganization act was passed in 1966. According to this, the state of Punjabi-speaking areas was made Haryana, and the hilly regions joined with Himachal Pradesh. In addition, Chandigarh was made to serve as the joint capital for Punjab and Haryana.
  • On December 18, 1970, the Himachal Pradesh state act was passed, and by January 25, 1971, Himachal Pradesh became the 18th state of India.
  • On January 21, 1972, Tripura, Meghalaya, and Manipur became states under the North Eastern region reorganization act of 1971.
  • On May 15, 1975, Sikkim acquired the status of state and became the 22nd state of India.
  • As per the statehood act of 1986, Mizoram became the 23rd state on February 20, 1987.
  • In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh acquired the status of state.
  • On May 30, 1987, Goa attained statehood.
  • Under the Bihar reorganization act, Jharkhand was formed on November 15, 2000.
  • The Madhya Pradesh reorganization act enabled the formation of Chhattisgarh on November 1, 2000.
  • By November 9, 2000, Uttaranchal became the 27th state of India.
  • Telangana became the 29th Indian state on June 2, 2014, under the Andhra Pradesh reorganization act.

Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization Act

Until 2019 Jammu and Kashmir exercised special powers under article 35A. It empowered the state's legislature to define permanent residents of the state and enable them to exercise extraordinary powers and privileges. In addition, the state has its constitution and separate land inheritance law.

On August 5, 2019, the Minister of Home Affairs, Amit Shah, introduced the Jammu and Kashmir reorganization bill in the Rajya Sabha. As a result, article 370, including article 35A, got revoked. Further, the bill aimed at reorganizing the state of Jammu and Kashmir into the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (with assembly) and the union territory of Ladakh (without assembly).

Jammu and Kashmir, after Article 370 of the Indian constitution is revoked:

  • No dual citizenship
  • Central law can directly apply
  • No separate laws
  • Indian citizens from other states can buy land and property
  • No two flags
  • Election every five years
  • The centre can declare a financial emergency under article 360
  • The centre will manage police

Challenges in State Formation in India

Prime Minister Nehru and Deputy Prime Minister Vallabhbhai Patel were against forming linguistic states.

It was evident that during the freedom struggle, the most influential parties of the time – the Indian National Congress in 1920, had promised the formation of provinces on a linguistic basis right after independence. But later, the party's ideas changed; they were against the formation of the linguistic state.

The change in the decision was mainly due to the communal riots that broke out during the post-colonial period. Freedom came along with partition, which caused lots of bloodsheds. The entire country is divided into two based on religion. There was forced displacement, and many crimes were committed, killing millions of people.

This created distress in the minds of people. Nehru and Vallabhbhai Patel feared that the linguistic formation of states would once again cause a division among people. They perceived linguistic states as obstacles that would divide people. So they wanted to promote the idea of nationalism to have everyone united and reject any place that would bring about division.

Formation Dates of Indian States

Below mentioned is the complete list of the formation of Indian states after independence along with the dates. Also, go through the States of India and their Capitals.

Formation of States in India

Indian States Formation Dates in Ascending Order

Details

Punjab

1,947

Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966

Assam

1,950

Originally known as the Ahom Kingdom was a part of the Kamarupa Kingdom. It was reorganized as the North-East Frontier Province in 1874, then Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905.

In 1912, Assam Province was formed before becoming a state in 1950.

Bihar

1,950

Originally was Bihar and Orissa Province. In 1936, Bihar Province was formed, leading to statehood in 1950.

Odisha

1,950

Founded as Orissa Province in 1936, achieved statehood in 1950, renamed Odisha on 1st November 2011.

West Bengal

1950

Was a part of Bengal Province

Himachal Pradesh

1,971

In 1950, Himachal Pradesh was a Part C State and became a state in 1971. Himachal Pradesh Union Territory was formed in 1956 before statehood.

Rajasthan

30 March 1949

Was known as the Rajputana agency - the princely state

Uttar Pradesh

24 January 1950

United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was created in 1937 and later UP State was formed in 1950.

Madhya Pradesh

1 November 1950

Achieved statehood in 1950

Andhra Pradesh

1 November 1953

Andhra Pradesh was a part of Hyderabad and Andhra State. States Reorganisation Act, 1956 formed the new state.

Karnataka

1 November 1956

Founded by the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 as Mysore State, renamed Karnataka in 1973

Kerala

1 November 1956

Founded by the States Reorganisation Act, 1956

Tamil Nadu

1 November 1956

Founded by the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 as Madras State, renamed Tamil Nadu in 1969

Gujarat

1 May 1960

Bombay Reorganisation Act, 1960

Maharashtra

1 May 1960

Founded by the Bombay Reorganization Act, 1960.

Nagaland

1 December 1963

Founded by the State of Nagaland Act, 1962

Haryana

1 November 1966

Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966

Manipur

21 January 1972

Founded by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971

Meghalaya

21 January 1972

Founded by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971

Tripura

21 January 1972

Founded by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971

Sikkim

16 May 1975

36th Amendment of the Constitution of India in 1975

Arunachal Pradesh

20 February 1987

North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971 created a UT and later was given a state status by State of Arunachal Pradesh Act, 1986

Mizoram

20 February 1987

Created as a Union Territory by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971. Converted to a state by the State of Mizoram Act, 1986

Goa

30 May 1987

State of Goa Act, 1986

Chhattisgarh

1 November 2000

Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000

Uttarakhand

9 November 2000

Founded by the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 as Uttaranchal, renamed Uttarakhand in 2007.

Jharkhand

15 November 2000

Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000. Earlier, it was a part of Bihar

Telangana

2 June 2014

Founded by the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014

Formation of Indian UTs

Go through the timeline for how union territories (UTs) in India were formed. Also, check the Union Territories of India and their capitals

Indian Union Territories

Formation Dates of Indian Union Territories

Foundation

Puducherry

1 November 1954

Achieved union territory status in 1962, renamed Puducherry in 2007.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

1 November 1956

States Reorganisation Act, 1956.

Delhi

1 November 1956

States Reorganisation Act, 1956.

Lakshadweep

1 November 1956

States Reorganisation Act, 1956.

Chandigarh

1 November 1966

Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966.

Jammu and Kashmir

31 October 2019

Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019.

Ladakh

31 October 2019

Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu

26 January 2020

Founded by the Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (Merger of Union Territories) Act, 2019.

State Formation in India UPSC

The state formation in India is a critical topic for the UPSC Exam. It comes under the Indian History Syllabus of UPSC, which contains information about the history of states and union territories formation in India, the state reorganization act, and the former special status of Jammu and Kashmir (revoke of article 370).

The topic is crucial for UPSC Prelims, Mains, and Interview. UPSC Aspirants need to cover the details of this topic as per the UPSC syllabus and have to revise regularly for exam excellence. To cover all related topics comprehensively, download the NCERT Boos for UPSC and practice UPSC Previous Year Question Papers.

Download State Formation in India UPSC Notes PDF

State Formation in India UPSC Prelims Sample Question

Question: How many states and union territories were formed under the reorganization act 1956?

  1. 15 states and six union territories
  2. 14 states and six union territories
  3. 15 states and five union territories
  4. 17 states and seven union territories

Answer: B

Other Important UPSC Notes
44th Constitutional Amendment42nd Amendment Act 1976
Women Freedom Fighters of India1st Session of the Indian National Congress
Article 164 of Indian Constitution13th BRICS Summit
7th Pay Commission ReportAdministrative Divisions of India
Administrative Reforms in IndiaAMRUT Scheme
Difference Between Urban and RuralCoastal States of India

Comments

write a comment

FAQs on State Formation in India

  • State Formation in India considered language as a criteria because It enhances and promotes local people to be involved in administration to a greater extent as they share a common language. Governance would be more accessible in a region with linguist and geographical features. Also, it helps develop the vernacular language of each area.

  • The New States of India were formed due to cultural or social affiliation and economic development. It’ll help develop the particular region as it is pretty challenging to govern over a large area, which might result in unequal distribution of resources. As the population rises with increasing new communities, this helps to meet their needs. At times political parties demand new states based on cultural and social identities, which they use to gain interest and turn into a vote bank.

  • The formation of the first linguistic state, Andra, for Telugu-speaking people was followed by a series of demands from people of various regions of the country seeking the creation of conditions on a linguistic basis. To consider these demands, Jawaharlal Nehru appointed a commission under Fazil Ali on December 22, 1953. The committee came up with a report in 1955, which suggested forming 16 states and three centrally administered areas.

  • On August 5, 2019, the Minister of Home Affairs, Amit Shah, introduced the Jammu and Kashmir reorganization bill in the Rajya Sabha. As a result, article 370, including article 35A, got revoked. Further, the bill aimed at reorganizing the state of Jammu and Kashmir into the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (with assembly) and the union territory of Ladakh (without assembly).

Featured Articles

Follow us for latest updates