# Time & Space Complexity Study Notes

By Mukesh Kumar|Updated : December 12th, 2021

## I. Asymptotic Notations:

The notations we use to describe the asymptotic (approximate) running time of an algorithm are defined in terms of functions whose domains are the set of natural numbers = {0, 1, 2 ... }.  The asymptotic notations consist of the following useful notations.

Big Oh (O):
• If we write f(n) = O(g(n)), then there exists a function f(n) such that ∀ nn0, f(n) ≤ cg (n) with any constant c and a positive integer n0

OR

• f(n) = O(g(n)) means we can say g(n) is an asymptotic upper bound for f(n). • ### Example-1:

Let f(n) = n2 + n + 5. Then f(n) is O(n2), and f(n) is O(n3), but f(n) is not O(n).

• ### Example-2:

Let f(n) =  3n . Then f(n) is O(4n) but not f(n) is not O(2n)

Note: O(1) refers to constant time. O(n) indicates linear time; O(nk) (k fixed) refers to polynomial time; O(log n) is called logarithmic time; O(2n) refers to exponential time, etc.

O(1) < O(log n) < O(n) < O(n2) < O(2n)

### Omega (Ω):

• If we write f(n) = Ω(g(n)), then there exists a function f(n) such that ∀ nn0,  f(n) ≥ cg(n) with any constant c and a positive integer n0Or
• f(n) = Ω(g(n)) means we can say Function g(n) is an asymptotic lower bound for f(n).
• Example-1: Let f (n) = 2n2 + 4n + 10. Then f (n) is Ω(n2)

### Theta (θ):

• If we write f(n) = θ(g(n)), then there exists a function f(n) such that ∀ nn0,  c1g(n) ≤ f(n) ≤ c2g(n) with a positive integer n0, any positive constants c1 and c2Or
• f(n) = θ(g(n)) means we can say Function g(n) is an asymptotically tight bound for f(n). • ### Example-1:

Let f (n) = 2n2 + 4n + 10. Then f (n) is θ(n2)

### Small Oh (o):

• If we write f(n) = o(g(n), then there exists a function such that f(n) < c g(n) with any positive constant c and a positive integer n0Or
• f(n) = o(g(n) means we can say Function g(n) is an asymptotically tight upper bound of f(n).
• Example:  n1.99 = o(n2)

### Small Omega (ω):

• If we write f(n) = ω(g(n)), then these exists a function such that f(n) > cg(n) with any positive constant c and a positive integer n0Or
• f(n) = ω(g(n)) means we can say g(n) is asymptotically tight lower bound of f(n).
• Example:  n2.00001 = ω(n2) and n2 ≠ ω(n2)

## II. The relationship between asymptotic notations : ## 1.Reflexive Property: 2. Symmetric Property: ### 3.Transitive Property 4.Mixed asymptotic transitive Properties: ## IV. Analysis of Algorithms

The complexity of an algorithm is a function describing the efficiency of the algorithm in terms of the amount of data the algorithm must process. Usually there are natural units for the domain and range of this function.
• Algorithm can be classified by the amount of time they need to complete compared to their input size.
• The analysis of an algorithm focuses on the complexity of algorithm which depends on time or space.
There are two main complexity measures of the efficiency of an algorithm:

### 1. Time Complexity:

The time complexity is a function that gives the amount of time required by an algorithm to run to completion.
• Worst case time complexity: It is the function defined by the maximum amount of time needed by an algorithm for an input of size n.
• Average case time complexity: The average-case running time of an algorithm is an estimate of the running time for an "average" input. Computation of average-case running time entails knowing all possible input sequences, the probability distribution of occurrence of these sequences, and the running times for the individual sequences.
• Amortized Running Time: It is the time required to perform a sequence of (related) operations is averaged over all the operations performed.  Amortized analysis guarantees the average performance of each operation in the worst case.
• Best case time complexity: It is the minimum amount of time that an algorithm requires for an input of size n.

### 2. Space Complexity:

The space complexity is a function that gives the amount of space required by an algorithm to run to completion.

## V. What is Recurrence Relations

A recurrence is a function defined in terms of One or more base cases and Itself with smaller arguments.
Example: Above recurrence relation can be computed asymptotically that is T(n) = O(n2).
In algorithm analysis, we usually express both the recurrence and its solution using asymptotic notation.

## Methods to Solve the Recurrence Relation

There are three methods to solve the recurrence relation given as: Master method , Substitution Method and Recursive Tree method.

### 1. Master Method:

The master method gives us a quick way to find solutions to recurrence relations of the form T(n) = aT (n/b) + f(n). Where, a and b are constants, a ≥ 1 and b > 1)

• T(n) = aT(n/b) + f (n) where f(n)  Θ(nd), d ≥ 0
• Case-1: If a < bd,  T(n)  Θ(nd)
• Case-2: If a = bd,  T(n)  Θ(nd log n)
• Case-3: If a > bd,  T(n)  Θ(nlog b a )
• Examples:
• T(n) = 4T(n/2) + n    T(n)  Θ(n2)
• T(n) = 4T(n/2) + n2   T(n)  Θ(n2log n)
• T(n) = 4T(n/2) + n3   T(n)  Θ(n3)

### 2. Iterative Substitution Method:

Recurrence equation is substituted itself to find the final generalized form of the recurrence equation.

`T(N) = 2T(N/2)+bN     Here T(N/2) is substituted with 2T((N/2)/2)+b(N/2)`
`T(N) = 4T(N/4)+2bN (Similarly substitute for T(N/4)T(N) = 8T(N/8)+3bNAfter (i-1) substititions,T(N) = 2iT(N/2i)+ibN`

When i=log(N), N/2i=1 and we have the base case.

T(N) = 2log(N)T(N/2log(N))+ibN

T(N) = N T(1) +log(N)bN

T(N) = Nb +log(N)bN

Therefore T(N) is O(Nlog(N))

Using recursion method, n element problem can be further divided into two or more sub problems. In the following

### 3. Recursion Tree Method:

figure, given problem with n elements is divided into two equal sub problems of size n/2. For each level of the tree the number of elements is N. When the tree is split so evenly the sizes of all the nodes on each level. Maximum depth of tree is logN (number of levels).

Recurrence relation T(n) = 2 T(n/2) + O(n) =  Θ(Nlog(N)). Example-1: Find the Time complexity for T(N) = 4T(N/2)+N.

Let T(N) = aT(N/b)+f(N).

Then a=4, b=2, and f(N)=N

Nlogba = Nlog24 = N2.

f(N) is smaller than Nlogba

Using case 1 of master theorem with ε=1.

T(N) = Θ(Nlogba) = Θ(N2).

Example-2:  Find the Time complexity for  T(N) = 2T(N/2) = Nlog(N)

a=2, b=2, and f(N)=Nlog(N)

Using case 2 of the master theorem with k=1.

T(N) = Θ(N(logN)2).

Example-3:  Find the Time complexity for T(N) = T(N/4) + 2N

a=1, b=4, and f(N)=2N

logba = log41 = 0

Nlogb = N0 = 1

Using case 3: f(N) is Ω(N0+ε) for &epsilon=1 and af(N/b) = (1)2(N/4) = N/2 = (1/4)f(N)

Therefore T(N) = Θ(N)

Example-4:  Find the Time complexity for T(N) = 9T(N/3) + N2.5

a=9, b=3, f(N)=N2.5

logba = 2, so Nlogb = N2

Using case 3 since f(N) is Ω(N0+ε), epsilon=.5 and af(N/b)=9f(N/3)= 9(N/3)2.5=(1/3)0.5f(n).

Therefore T(n) is O(N2.5)

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