Short Notes on Chemistry for SSC Exam

By Rahul Chadha|Updated : January 8th, 2021

Today we will discuss some compounds of the Carbon and Hydrogen which are useful in our day to day life. In SSC CGL question are generally asked from this portion. Read this article carefully as it can help you score good marks in the upcoming exams.

Today we will discuss some compounds of the Carbon and Hydrogen which are useful in our day to day life. In SSC CGL question are generally asked from this portion. Read this article carefully as it can help you score good marks in the upcoming exams.

Hydrogen Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

Ethyl bromide:

  • It is colourless and used as a local anaesthetic and in organic synthesis.

Chloroform (CHCL3):

  • Discovered by Liebig, used as the anaesthetic in surgery.
  • Always stored in the dark coloured bottle as it gets oxidised with the sunlight and form a poisonous gas known as Phosgene.
  • It reacts with concentrated HNO3 to form Chloropicrin, a poisonous gas used in the war.

Carbon tetrachloride (CCL4):

  • Used as a fire extinguisher, used as a solvent for the fats, oils in the industry.


  • The chlorofluorocarbon compounds of methane and ethane are collectively known as Freon.
  • They are produced by the refrigerator, A.C and propellants.
  • They cause the depletion of Ozone.

Dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT):

  • Discovered by Paul Muller and it is used as an insecticide, widely used against the mosquito and lice.
  • It is highly stable and is not decomposed easily in the environment that why it is banned in several countries.

P-dichloro benzene:

  • Used as an insecticide, germicide and in deodorant and moth repellent.

Perfluoro carbons (PFC):

  • Used as an electric insulator, lubricants, dielectric, heat transfer media in high voltage.


Methyl alcohol (CH3OH):

  • known as wood spirit or wood naptha.
  • Used for the denaturing of alcohol (methylated spirit is denatured ethyl alcohol).
  • Used as alcohol-petrol fuel, automobile antifreeze mixtures and in the manufacturing of drugs, dyes and perfumes etc.

Ethyl alcohols (C2H5OH):

  • Known as alcohol, the spirit of wine or grain alcohol.
  • Used as a solvent in the paint industry.

Ethylene glycol:

  • Used as a antifreeze in automobile radiator and as a cooling agent in aeroplanes instead of water.
  • Its dinitrate is used as an explosive with trinitroglycerine.


  • Present in almost all the animal and vegetable oil and fats as glycerides.
  • It is hygroscopic in nature and used in the manufacturing of the cosmetic and transparent soaps, as a lubricant for watches and clocks.

Phenol (C6H5OH):

  • Commonly known as carbolic acid or benzenol and prepared by the middle oil fraction of Coal Tar.
  • Used in the preparation of drugs such as salol, aspirin, salicylic acid and phenacetin.


Formaldehyde (HCHO)

  • Its 40% dilute solution is known as formalin, used as insecticide, germicide and preservative for biological specimen.
  • Used in the leather industry for tanning and in the manufacturing of synthetic dyes and Bakelite.

Acetaldehyde (CH3CHO)

  • Used in the silvering of mirror and in the manufacturing of paraldehyde and metaldehyde.
  • Chloral or Trichloro acetaldehyde
  • Used as a sleep-producing drugs and as a powerful stimulant

Acrolein or Acraldehyde

  • Used in tear gas and as a warming agent to find out leakage if any of methyl chloride.


Acetone or Dimethyl ketone (CH3COCH3)

  • It is the first member of keton series
  • It Is one of the constituent of the nail polish.
  • Chloretone used as a medicine is obtained by the reaction of acetone with chloroform in the presence of potassium hydroxide.


Formic acid (HCOOH)

  • Found in red ants, in the strings of bees and wasps.
  • It is corrosive and produces blisters on the skin.
  • Used in the preparation of fruits and as a medicine for the treatment of the Gout.

Acetic acid

  • Dilute acetic acid is used as vinegar and concentrated acid is used as a solvent.
  • Prepared by the fermentation process

Oxalic Acid

  • It is used to remove ink stains from the cloth.
  • Its salt potassium ferrous oxalate is used in the photography.
  • It occurs in rhubarb, sorrel and other plant of oxalic acid group in the form of potassium salts.

Lactic Acid

  • It is a monohydroxy acid, present in milk
  • When we do vigorous physical activity lactic acid is produced which causes pain in muscles.

Tartaric Acid

  • It occurs in grapes, tamarind and berries.
  • Used in dyeing industry and making baking powders.
  • Rochelle salt(sodium potassium tartrate) is used in the preparation of Fehling solution.

Citric Acid

  • In Free states, it is found in citrus fruit such as lemon, lime, orange and galgal.
  • Used in making beverages and as a mordant in dyeing and calico –printing.

Salicylic Acid

  • It is poisonous and has antiseptic property.
  • Used in the azo dyes and aspirin preparation

Acetoacetic Acid

  • It is a colourless liquid, on decomposition, it gives acetone and CO2.
  • It occurs in excess in the urine of diabetic patients.



  • It is a pale yellow oily liquid with a strong smell of bitter almonds.
  • It is also known as oil of mirbane.
  • Used in the preparation of aniline, benzidine, 1, 3, 5-trinitro benzene and azodyes.

1, 3, 5-trinitrobenzene or TNB

  • It has greater explosive power than TNT and is used in making explosives.

Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

  • It is a pale yellow crystalline solid prepared by nitrating toluene with fuming nitric acid and fuming sulphuric acid mixture.
  • Used as an explosive in bombs, shells and torpedo.



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