Hydrogen Derivatives of Hydrocarbons
- It is colourless and used as a local anaesthetic and in organic synthesis.
- Discovered by Liebig, used as the anaesthetic in surgery.
- Always stored in the dark coloured bottle as it gets oxidised with the sunlight and form a poisonous gas known as Phosgene.
- It reacts with concentrated HNO3 to form Chloropicrin, a poisonous gas used in the war.
Carbon tetrachloride (CCL4):
- Used as a fire extinguisher, used as a solvent for the fats, oils in the industry.
- The chlorofluorocarbon compounds of methane and ethane are collectively known as Freon.
- They are produced by the refrigerator, A.C and propellants.
- They cause the depletion of Ozone.
Dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT):
- Discovered by Paul Muller and it is used as an insecticide, widely used against the mosquito and lice.
- It is highly stable and is not decomposed easily in the environment that why it is banned in several countries.
- Used as an insecticide, germicide and in deodorant and moth repellent.
Perfluoro carbons (PFC):
- Used as an electric insulator, lubricants, dielectric, heat transfer media in high voltage.
Methyl alcohol (CH3OH):
- known as wood spirit or wood naptha.
- Used for the denaturing of alcohol (methylated spirit is denatured ethyl alcohol).
- Used as alcohol-petrol fuel, automobile antifreeze mixtures and in the manufacturing of drugs, dyes and perfumes etc.
Ethyl alcohols (C2H5OH):
- Known as alcohol, the spirit of wine or grain alcohol.
- Used as a solvent in the paint industry.
- Used as a antifreeze in automobile radiator and as a cooling agent in aeroplanes instead of water.
- Its dinitrate is used as an explosive with trinitroglycerine.
- Present in almost all the animal and vegetable oil and fats as glycerides.
- It is hygroscopic in nature and used in the manufacturing of the cosmetic and transparent soaps, as a lubricant for watches and clocks.
- Commonly known as carbolic acid or benzenol and prepared by the middle oil fraction of Coal Tar.
- Used in the preparation of drugs such as salol, aspirin, salicylic acid and phenacetin.
- Its 40% dilute solution is known as formalin, used as insecticide, germicide and preservative for biological specimen.
- Used in the leather industry for tanning and in the manufacturing of synthetic dyes and Bakelite.
- Used in the silvering of mirror and in the manufacturing of paraldehyde and metaldehyde.
- Chloral or Trichloro acetaldehyde
- Used as a sleep-producing drugs and as a powerful stimulant
Acrolein or Acraldehyde
- Used in tear gas and as a warming agent to find out leakage if any of methyl chloride.
Acetone or Dimethyl ketone (CH3COCH3)
- It is the first member of keton series
- It Is one of the constituent of the nail polish.
- Chloretone used as a medicine is obtained by the reaction of acetone with chloroform in the presence of potassium hydroxide.
Formic acid (HCOOH)
- Found in red ants, in the strings of bees and wasps.
- It is corrosive and produces blisters on the skin.
- Used in the preparation of fruits and as a medicine for the treatment of the Gout.
- Dilute acetic acid is used as vinegar and concentrated acid is used as a solvent.
- Prepared by the fermentation process
- It is used to remove ink stains from the cloth.
- Its salt potassium ferrous oxalate is used in the photography.
- It occurs in rhubarb, sorrel and other plant of oxalic acid group in the form of potassium salts.
- It is a monohydroxy acid, present in milk
- When we do vigorous physical activity lactic acid is produced which causes pain in muscles.
- It occurs in grapes, tamarind and berries.
- Used in dyeing industry and making baking powders.
- Rochelle salt(sodium potassium tartrate) is used in the preparation of Fehling solution.
- In Free states, it is found in citrus fruit such as lemon, lime, orange and galgal.
- Used in making beverages and as a mordant in dyeing and calico –printing.
- It is poisonous and has antiseptic property.
- Used in the azo dyes and aspirin preparation
- It is a colourless liquid, on decomposition, it gives acetone and CO2.
- It occurs in excess in the urine of diabetic patients.
- It is a pale yellow oily liquid with a strong smell of bitter almonds.
- It is also known as oil of mirbane.
- Used in the preparation of aniline, benzidine, 1, 3, 5-trinitro benzene and azodyes.
1, 3, 5-trinitrobenzene or TNB
- It has greater explosive power than TNT and is used in making explosives.
- It is a pale yellow crystalline solid prepared by nitrating toluene with fuming nitric acid and fuming sulphuric acid mixture.
- Used as an explosive in bombs, shells and torpedo.