Seasons in India (Lunisolar Calendar)
According to the lunisolar calendar, the 6 seasons are characterized by the weather, duration of the day, and other characteristics like the shedding of leaves, etc. The 6 seasons are listed below:
Spring Season: The season spans from March to April and according to the Hindu calendar these seasons occur in the month of Chaitra and Baisakh. Temperature is around 32 degrees during these 2 months and the day starts to appear longer as compared to the night. The tree starts to shed its leaves during these 2 months while new leaves appear. The various festivals which are celebrated during this season are Holi, Baisakhi, Vasant Panchami, Gudi para, and Hanuman Jayanti.
Summer: Followed by Spring is the summer season which is also called Grishma Ritu which is characterized by extremely hot weather. The average temperature during this season is around 38 degrees and the days are the longest as compared to any other season. The water level falls drastically during this time and various animals and birds tend to stay inside. Major festival celebrations include Guru Poornima and various Rath yatra (Chariot rides).
Monsoon: The season follows summer and is characterized by heavy rainfall. The season occurs in the month of July and August and according to the Hindu calendar, they fall under the month of Sawan and Bado. Temperature falls as compared to summer and days start to become shorter while night becomes longer. This season is also known as the “green season” and major Hindu festivals are celebrated during this season including Janamashtmi, Raksha Bandhan, and Onam.
Autumn: This can be considered as the most perfect season or pleasant season of the year. According to the Hindu calendar, this season occurs in the month of Ashwin and Kartik which are summer September and October. Leaves from the tree start falling while the sky is clear. The surrounding area is clean while there is a minimum appearance of insects in the surroundings. Length of day and night are almost equal. No rise or fall in temperature.
Pre Winter: This season is also known as Hemant Ritu as per the Hindu calendar. The temperature is 27 degrees which are moderately cold. The day starts to become shorter. New flowers and leaves start to appear on the tree and there is low rainfall. Major festivals in this season are Diwali and Bhai Dooj. According to the Hindu calendar, the season falls in the month of Agahan and Poos which are November and December.
Winter: This is the last season and the completion of the year according to the Hindu calendar. The season is characterized by cold winds, dryness, and snowfall. Temperature is around or below 20 degrees and is the coldest season of the year. Speaking in terms of Geography the sun is at the highest summit in the sky. Major Hindu festivals include Shivaratri, Pongal, Lohri. According to the Hindu calendar, this season is also known as Shishir Ritu
Seasons in India (as per the Meteorological Department)
Winter: This season occurs during the months of January and February. The season is the same as the winter season of the Hindu Calendar. The season is characterized by cold winds. Different regions in India have different temperatures and different amounts of rainfall are received in different parts of India. The temperature in the north is the lowest while the temperature in the south is the highest. Average temperature falls under the limits of 15-20 degrees.
Summer: Followed by winter is the summer season. Starting from April and ending in the month of July. Various characteristics of the season are the same as compared to the Summer season of Hindu, while another feature is the hot dry summer wind also called loo. The average temperature is 36 degrees and the highest temperature of 45 degrees is noted in some areas.
Monsoon: This is a three-month season where rainfall and thunderstorms dominate the entire weather around the country. The season supplies over 80 % of the total annual rainfall in India. The season is of great importance and a subject to be studied by researchers for research purposes and economic purposes as Indian agriculture is heavily dependent on rainfall. Weak or failed monsoons can heavily affect agriculture and crops growth in India.
Post Monsoon: This season follows the monsoon and is characterized by low rainfall. By some parties, this is not considered a season and there are only 3 seasons in India. The temperature between these seasons is between 25-34 degrees.