Answer: D. All of the above
Run off includes all of the above.
Run off is nothing but the volume of water drained by the water body at the outlet of the catchment. Water moves over the surface of land and enters a lake, pond, or ocean. Run off is dependent on how much precipitation is falling in a specific community from day to day.
Runoff also includes groundwater that is released into a stream; streamflow that is collected completely of groundwater is termed base flow, and it occurs where a stream channel intersects the water table.
- Surface runoff : It is the flow of water occurring on the ground surface when excess rainwater, storm water or other sources flow away by soil reaching to the field capacity and infiltration in the soil is limited.
- Groundwater flow : When surface water seeps down by the pores of the soil and meets to the internal water stream, this is generally called as groundwater flow.
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