Statement and Conclusions:
A statement is a group of words arranged to form a meaningful sentence. A conclusion is a judgment or decision reached after consideration of the given statement.
The different types of questions covered in this chapter are as follows.
- One statement with Two Conclusion Based
- More than Two Statements and Conclusion Based
A conclusion is an opinion or decision that is formed after a period of thought or research on some facts or sentence stated by someone. A consequent effect has always to be analyzed before reaching the final result or conclusion of a given premise. This requires a very systematic and logical approach.
Statement: Some people say that good thought comes to their mind in the morning.
Conclusion: Thoughts come to mind, in the morning only.
Now, consider the statement, the word ‘some’ used in the statement does not mean ‘all’. It means some people say not all. Hence, according to some people, good thoughts come in their mind in the morning but thoughts can come at any time in the mind of other people, so, the conclusion that ‘thoughts come to mind, in the morning only is not valid. Also, the word used ‘only’ makes the conclusion totally invalid because it restricts that the thought can come only in the morning.
To reach a conclusion think only about the information given in the statement. There is no need to use, assume anything else or add any further or extra information from outside but the established facts cannot be denied like the Sun always rises in the East, a day consists of 24 h, etc.
- If the statement is formed with two or more sentences, then there should be no mutual contradiction in a sentence.
- Statements and conclusions should not go against established facts and prevailing notions of truth.
- If definitive words like all, always, at least, only, exactly, and so on are used, then such words make the conclusion invalid or ambiguous.
- Always read very carefully and try to find keywords as they play an important role in analyzing valid and invalid conclusions.
- If the conclusion is provided with a stated example, then the conclusion is invalid.
These are several types of questions that are asked from this section in different exams. So, here we have classified the problems into two types which are explained below.
Type 1: One Statement with two Conclusions Based.
In these types of questions, a statement is given followed by two conclusions. the candidate is required to find out which conclusion follows the given statement and select the correct option accordingly. The following examples will give a better understanding of the type of questions asked.
Directions ( 1 – 2): In each of the following questions, a statement is followed by two Conclusions I and II.
(a) if only Conclusion I follows
(b) if only Conclusion II follows
(c) if either I or II follows
(d) if neither I nor II follows
Ex 1: Statement: Parents are prepared to pay any price for elite education to their children.
I. All parents these days are very well off.
II. Parents have an obsessive passion for the perfect development of their children through good schooling.
It may be a conclusion from the statement that since parents want a perfect development of their children through good schooling, therefore, they are prepared to pay any price for a good education but the statement does not give a sense of the parents being very well off. Hence, only conclusion II follows.
Ex 2 : Statement: The interview panel may select a student who is neither possessing the abilities of desired level nor any value and assumption.
I. The inclusion of experts in the interview panel does not ensure that the selection will be made properly.
II. Interview procedure of admission has some limitations.
The statement clearly means that the inclusion of experts does not ensure proper selection. It also indicates the limitation of the interview procedure for admission. Here, both the conclusions follow.
Type 2: More Than Two Statements and Conclusion Based
In this type of question, a statement/statements I / are given followed by some conclusion. Choose the conclusion which follows the given statement.
Directions (1 - 2): Which of the conclusion can be drawn from the statement?
Ex 1: Statement: Many business offices are located in buildings having two to eight floors. If a building has more than three floors, it has a lift.
(a) All floors may be reached by lifts
(b) Only floors above the third floor have lifts
(c) The fifth floor has lifts
(d) Second floors do not have lifts
It is clear from the given statement.
Ex 2: Statements
Karan Johar is a good director.
Directors are intelligent.
(a) All intelligent are directors
(b) Karan Johar is intelligent
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of these
As directions are intelligent and Karan Johar is a good director, so Karan Johar is intelligent.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||A Modern Approach to Verbal & Non-Verbal Reasoning||R.S. Aggarwal|
|2.||Quantitative Aptitude for Competitive Examinations||ABHIJIT GUHA and R.S. Aggarwal|
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