An analogy means ‘Drawing a comparison show a similarity in some respect’. An analogy uses a relationship between two(or more) elements to show a similar relationship among another set of elements. So, analogy questions aim to test the overall logical understanding of the candidates and how coherently they understand the different kinds of relationships among various elements.
Various types of relationships are used in analogy-based questions. Below is one such list which shows the various relationships with one example each:
Analogy Questions and Solutions
Let’s explore the various types of questions based on Analogy that are asked in SSC-CGL exams and the right way to solve them:
Types of Analogy:
I) Completing analogous pair: Such questions give the relationship between a pair; the first element of the second pair is given and we have to find the second element of the second pair based on a similar relationship given by the first pair.
1) Oasis: Sand ∷ Island:?
Here, the first pair is ⇒ “Oasis: Sand” and the second pair is “Island:?”. And, “∷” sign means first pair and second pair share a similar relationship.
‘Oasis’ is a mass of water amidst ‘Sand’ similarly ‘Island’ is a mass of land amidst ‘water’. Note: It’d be Island: Sea had the first pair been Oasis: Desert. We’re given the name of thing desert is made of i.e. Sand. So, we’ll use the name of thing Sea is made of i.e. Water.
2) Annihilation: Fire ∷ Cataclysm
Here, ‘Annihilation’ i.e. destruction is the result of ‘Fire’. So, ‘Cataclysm’ i.e. the rising of a body of water and its overflowing onto normally dry land is the result of ‘flood’.
II) Simple Analogy: In such questions, a simple statement is given where a relationship is given and we’re asked the second element for the term given in the question, like the example below:
1) Sweet is to Chocolate as Book is to….?
Here, Chocolate can be sweet or bitter but ‘Sweet’ is the enlarged form of chocolate. Similarly, ‘Encyclopedia’ is an enlarged form of a ‘book’.
III) Choosing the analogous pair: In such questions, a pair is given in the question and we’ve to find a suitable pair from the options given that resembles the similar relationship as in the question like the examples below:
1) Borrow: Steal
a) Enter: Trespass
b) Tell: Speak
c) Ask: Beg
d) Hit: Kill
Here, for both ‘borrowing’ and ‘stealing’ we take someone else’s thing. The only difference is that the first thing we take is with the permission of another while the second thing is taken without the permission of another. Similarly, among all the options, we see this option is seen in ‘Enter: Trespass’ where we ‘enter’ after taking a permit while ‘trespassing’ is done without any permit whatsoever.
2) Cool: Frigid
a) Livid: Lurid
b) Pool: Placid
c) Tepid: Torrid
d) Lack: Abundant
Here, ‘Frigid’ means extremely cold. So, in Cool: Frigid, the second is the extreme version of another. Let’s check the meaning of all options given:
a) Livid ⇒ Discolored beneath the skin: Lurid⇒ Ghastly pale ⇒ This doesn’t give an extreme version of paleness.
b) Pool⇒ A small lake: Placid⇒ a body of water free from disturbance by heavy waves ⇒ This doesn’t give the extreme version of a pool.
c) Tepid⇒ Moderately warm: Torrid⇒ Extremely hot ⇒ Torrid is the extreme version of Tepid.
d) Lack: Abundant⇒ Present in great quantity ⇒ These two are opposite not extreme versions.
We can see that only option c) fulfills the criteria.
IV) Multiple word analogy: These are the type of questions discussed above with the only difference being that here three elements are given in a pair instead of two and we have to select the suitable option. Like the example below:
1) Music: Guitar: Performer
a) Dance: Tune: Instrument
b) Food: Recipe: Cook
c) Patient: Medicine: Doctor
d) Trick: Rope: Acrobat.
In, Music: Guitar: Performer, ‘Performer’ plays ‘Music’ on ‘Guitar’. So, the III element is playing/doing I element on the II element.
From options, we can see that this pattern is followed only in option d) i.e. Acrobat (An athlete who performs acts requiring skill) performs ‘Tricks’ on a ‘Rope’.
V) Number-based analogy: Till now, we saw the analogy based on words now we’ve questions based on numbers too like shown below:
1) Completing the analogous pair.
25: 37 ∷ 49:?
Here, in 25: 37 the pattern can be explained as where is the first element as 25 = 5^2 and is the second element as 36 = (5+1)2 + 1.
For 49, we know that 49 = 72 so second element = = 65 which is option d).
2) Choosing the analogous pair.
Q. 7: 24
a) 30: 100
b) 23: 72
c) 19: 58
d) 11: 43
In 7: 24, 24 = 7×3 + 3 i.e. the relationship can be shown as
Similar relationship can only be seen in option b) 23: 72 where 23×3 + 3 = 69 + 3 = 72.
3) Multiple number analogy: It’s just like multiple-word analogy:
Q. (9, 15, 21)
a) (10, 14, 21)
b) (7, 21, 28)
d) (4, 8, 12)
In (9, 15, 21) the pattern given is as 15 = = 15 where 9 and 21 are 1st and 3rd numbers respectively.
A similar relationship can only be seen in so option d) where 8 (second no.) = = 8
VI) Alphabet-based analogy: In these types of questions, two words that are a group of random letters are related to each other in some way. We’re supposed to complete the analogous pair based on that relationship:
FJUL: BOQQ∷ LHRX:?
The relationship between FJUL: BOQQ can be illustrated as:
If we do a similar operation on LHRX we can see the following:
Hence, option d) is the answer.
VII) Mixed analogy: These types of questions mixed alphabet and number like shown below:
Here, in , T is 20th element in the alphabet series while J is 10th so Similarly, X is 24thelement in alphabetical series while H is 8th so So,
Candidates may have deduced from the above questions that analogy questions are based on reasoning principles, mathematical computations, and general knowledge. As a result, candidates must be well familiar with all of the analogy question types covered in this article. Practice with BYJU’s Exam Prep to avail of course material curated explicitly for all aspirants. We hope you find this information helpful.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||A New Approach to Reasoning Verbal & Non-Verbal||B.S. Sijwalii and Indu Sijwali|
|2.||How to Crack Test Of Reasoning- REVISED EDITION||Jaikishan and Premkishan|
|3.||Logical and Analytical Reasoning (Useful for All Competitive Exams)||A K Gupta|
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