What is Ramappa Temple UNESCO?
Ramappa Temple, also known as Rudreshwara Temple or Ramalingeswara Temple, is a masterpiece of the Kakatiyan style of temple architecture which is located at Palampet, Mulugu district near Warangal in Telangana. Ramappa Temple is made up with the use of engineering innovation by creating floating bricks, sand-box foundations, etc.
- After being released from the rule of the Chalukyan dynasty, the Kakatiya dynasty ruled most of central India to the east coast in the 12th and 14th centuries. The construction of a Ramappa temple started in 1213 A.D. during the reign of Recharla Rudra, who was the general of Ganpati Deva, a Kakatiya king.
- Rudreshwar or Ramappa temple is a sandstone temple dedicated to Ramalingeswara Swamy (Shiva).
- It is the main Shiva temple in a larger walled temple complex, which includes several smaller temples and structures. Sculptor Ramappa built the Ramappa temple over 40 years.
- Ramappa temple is close to the shores of a Kakatiya-built water reservoir- Ramappa Cheruvu.
Key Points about Ramappa Temple
During the reign of King Ganapati Deva-Recharla Rudra, a Kakatiya empire General, this Rudreshwara Temple was constructed. Ramalingeswara Swamy is a presiding deity here.
- Rudreshwara Temple is also known as Ramappa Temple because Ramappa was a sculptor who built Rudreshwara Temple for over 40 years.
- There is a 6 feet high star-shaped platform on which the temple building stands with intricate carving on beams and pillars that reflects the unique style of the Kakatiya sculptors.
- They built the temple's foundation with the sandbox techniques in which a particular area is dug up and filled with sand because due to this robust foundation, the seismic waves generated due to the earthquakes are absorbed by the sand.
- A horizontally stepped tower that is Pyramidal Vimana is made of floating bricks to reduce the weight of the roof structures.
- The Kakatiya Heritage Trust (KHT) is responsible for protecting the Ramappa Temple. Since 2012, Ramappa Temple has been under the World Heritage Tag.
- An Italian merchant and explorer, Marco Polo had remarked the Ramappa Temple as the "brightest star in the galaxy of the medieval temples of the Deccan".
Kakatiyas Dynasty Temple
Along with the Hoysalas and Yadavas, the Kakatiyas had announced themselves as independent rulers of the Chalukyas. Most of the eastern Deccan region is ruled by the Kakatiya, comprising present-day Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, and some parts of eastern Karnataka and southern Odisha.
The capital of the Kakatiya ruler was Orugallu, now known as Warangal.
Some important rulers of the Kakatiya dynasty are-
- The first independent ruler of the Kakatiya dynasty was Prola 2.
- Rudradeva (1163-1195)- From the famous inscription in Rudreshwara Temple at Anumakonda, it is evident that he defeated many Chalukyan feudatories around his kingdom.
- Rudradeva was succeeded by his brother Mahadeva (1195-1198), and Mahadev was succeeded by his son Ganpati (1199-1261), and as Ganpati had no son, he was succeeded by Rudramadevi.
- Alauddin Khilji invaded the Kakatiya territory in 1303, which ended up as a disaster for Alauddin Khilji.
Cultural and Religious Conditions of Kakatiyas
- The Political career of Kakatiya was started in Southern India during the period when Jainism was enjoying royal patronage under the Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas.
- Kakatiya built the famous Padmakshi Temple at Hanamkonda in Telangana as the primal members of the Kakatiya dynasty were believed to have been Jains of the Digamber sect.
- Later Shaivism attained more popularity as compared to Jainism during the period of the Kakatiya dynasty. During the period of Kakatiyas, the Veerashaivism founded by Basaveswara entered the Telugu-speaking region of the Andhradesa.
- Jangams- were the teachers of Veerashaivism.
- Agams- were their religious texts.
- Lingayats- were the followers of Veerashaivism.
Art and Architecture of Ramappa Temple
The exquisite craftsmanship of the Ramappa temple is carved from one of the most uncommon and valuable stones, black basalt. The Ramappa temple flaunts its walls and pillars made out of this amazing black basalt and sandstone. Another notable feature of this temple is that it is made of bricks which are incredibly light in weight and form a good impression of the structure. The temple took nearly 40 years to complete.
- The Stellate temple form and the Vesara style of vimana of the Chalukyas were well carried forward by Kakatiyas.
- The temple is supported by a 6-foot-high platform with a cruciform plan. The temple room is covered with a Shikharam (the Telugu word for apex) and encircled by Pradakshinapatha ("exquisite temple carvings"). There is a Nandi Mandapam ("pavilion") at the entrance of the temple with a majestic Nandi Vigraham ("statue of the sacred bull Nandi") standing on it.
- In the field of construction and geo-technology, using sand in the construction of foundations to make an earthquake-resistant structure is a masterpiece of the creative effort of the Kakatiyas.
- Although devoid of any perennial water source, well-planned irrigation systems are a characteristic feature of the Kakatiyan kingdom.
- Recently, by taking inspiration from the Kakatiya dynasty, the Government of Telangana started 'Mission Kakatiya' to restore tanks and irrigation networks.
- In the 14th century, during the Kakatiya period, Telugu literature reached the level of maturity.
- Inspired by the dancing female figures carved in Ramappa Temple, Jayasenapati, an army general of Ganpati Deva, wrote Nritta Ratnavali in 1253 A.D.
- The Kakatiya rulers also patronised music, dance, painting, and other art forms.
- The dancing sculptures of the Rudreshwara Temple give an understanding of the traditions of desi dance performed in the temple such as Perini, Prekhana, Gavundali, Rasaka, Dandarasaka, Ghatisisri Nrttam.
- Rudreshwara Temple / Ramappa Temple is the climax of the architecture of the Kakatiyan style.
- The finest example of the Kakatiya architecture built at Hanamkonda is The Thousand Pillared Temple.
Thousand Pillar Temple
The Thousand Pillar Temple or Rudreshwara Swamy Temple is the finest example of the Kakatiya architecture built by Rudradeva of Kakatiya, located at Hanamkonda.
- To strengthen the foundations, the Sandbox technique was used.
- To bring harmony among Hindus is the main motive of the construction of the temple.
- Lord Shiva, Vishnu, and Surya are the dedicated deities in the temple. There are three shrined i.e. Trikulaya with three Sanctum Santorum.
- There is elegant decoration and the highest degree of polishing in the pillars of Mukha mandapa, the doorways of Shivalinga, and the Nandi.
Sandbox Technique in Ramappa Temple
It is the technology in which a certain area is dug up and filled up with sand before the structure is constructed on top of it.
Due to the robust foundation below the constructed structure, the seismic waves generated due to the earthquakes are absorbed by the sand by the time they reach the real foundation of the building.
Ramappa Temple UPSC
Art and Culture are the subjects mostly neglected by the aspirants. This approach isn't right. Every subject and topic related to the UPSC exam is of equal importance. Therefore, this is an unavoidable topic of history for the UPSC examination.
To prepare the Ramappa Temple topics of history relevant to the exam in detail download the NCERT Books for UPSC or the UPSC Books.
Ramappa Temple is an essential topic regarding UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains Exam as well. The aspirants willing to appear in the IAS Exam this year can also get UPSC Syllabus and Current Affairs from here. Here the aspirants have also facilitated with UPSC Previous Year's Question Paper and other Study Material.
Ramappa Temple UPSC Prelims Sample Question
Question- Which of the following statements is correct regarding the Ramappa Temple?
- The construction of the Ramappa Temple started in 1213 A.D. during the reign of Recharla Rudra.
- The Temple is dedicated to Ramalingeshwara Swamy.
- Sandbox techniques are used in this Temple.
Choose the correct option from the codes given below-
- 1 and 2 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 1 and 3 only
- All of the above
Question- Which of the following statements is correct with respect to Ramappa Temple?
- The Vesara style of vimana of the Chalukyas was well carried forward by Kakatiyas.
- To restore tanks and irrigation networks, the Government of Telangana started 'Mission Kakatiya'.
- Ramappa Temple became the 39th World Heritage Site.
Choose the correct option from the given below-
- 1 and 2 only
- 2 and 3 only
- All of the above
- 1 and 3 only