Governor-Generals and Viceroys of India Part 2 (1858–1947)
Lord Canning (1858–62)
- He was the Governor-General during Mutiny of 1857 and after the war, he was made the first Viceroy of India.
- The Indian Councils Act of 1862 was passed, which proved to be a landmark in the constitutional history of India
- The Indian Penal Code of Criminal Procedure (1859) was passed
- The Indian High Court Act (1861) was enacted
- Income Tax was introduced for the first time in 1858
- The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras founded in 1857.
Lord Elgin I (1862–63)
- Wahabi Movement (Pan-Islamic Movement).
- High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1862
Sir John Lawrence (1864–69)
- Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe;
- Expanded canal works and railways
- Bhutan War (1865)
- Advocated State-managed railways
- Created the Indian Forest Department and recognised the native Judicial service.
- He introduced various reforms and became the member of Punjab Board of Administration after the second Sikh war.
- He was known as the Saviour of Punjab.
Lord Mayo (1869–72)
- Introduced financial decentralization in India
- Established Rajkot College at Kathiawar and Mayo College at Ajmer for the princes
- Organised the Statistical Survey of India
- Established the Department of Agriculture & Commerce.
- He was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a Pathan convict in Andamans in 1872.
- For the first time in Indian history, a census was held in 1871.
Lord Northbrook (1872–76)
- Kuka Movement of Punjab took a rebellious turn during his period.
Lord Lytton (1876–80)
- Most infamous Governor-General pursued free trade and abolished duties on 29 British manufactured goods which accelerated drain of the wealth of India
- Arranged the Grand Darbar in Delhi (in 1877) when the country was suffering from a severe famine
- Passed the Royal Title Act (1876) and Queen Victoria was declared as the Kaiser-i-Hind
- Arms Act (1878) made mandatory for Indians to acquire a license for arms
- Passed the infamous Vernacular Press Act (1878)
- Proposed the plan of Statutory Civil Service in 1878-79 and lowered the maximum age limit from 21 to 19 years
Lord Ripon (1880–84)
- Repeal of the Vernacular Press Act, 1882
- The First Factory Act, 1881 to improve labour condition
- Resolution of Local Self Government in 1882
- Resolution on Land Revenue Policy
- Appointed Hunter Commission (for education reforms) in 1882
- The Ilbert Bill controversy erupted during his time (1883) which enabled Indian district magistrates to try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later.
Lord Dufferin (1884–88)
- 3rd Burmese War (Annexation of Upper and Lower Burma) in 1885.
- Establishment of Indian National Congress in 1885.
Lord Lansdowne (1888–94)
- The second Factory Act of 1891; Categorization of Civil Services into imperial, provincial and subordinate.
- Indian Council Act of 1892 (introduced elections which were indirect).
- Appointment of the Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan (1893).
Lord Elgin II (1894–99)
- The Munda uprising (under Birsa Munda) of 1899.
- Convention delimiting the frontier between China and India was ratified.
- The great famine of 1896–97.
- Lyall Commission appointed after famine (1897).
- The assassination of two British officials-Rand & Amherst-by Chapekar Brothers in 1897.
Lord Curzon (1899–1905)
- Appointed a Police Commission in 1902 under Andrew Frazer.
- Set up the Universities Commission and accordingly the Indian Universities Act of 1904 was passed.
- Set up the Department of Commerce and Industry.
- Calcutta Corporation Act (1899).
- Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act (in 1899) and put India on a gold standard.
- Partition of Bengal took place in 1905.
- Created the NWFP and Archaeological Survey of India.
Lord Minto II (1905–10)
- Swadeshi Movement (1905–08).
- Foundation of the Muslim League, 1906.
- Surat session and split in the Congress (1907).
- Newspapers Act, 1908.
- Morley-Minto Reforms, 1909.
Lord Hardinge II (1910–16)
- Annulment of the partition of Bengal (1911).
- Transfer of Capital from Calcutta to Delhi (1911).
- Delhi Darbar and Coronation of King George V and Queen Mary (1911).
- Establishment of Hindu Mahasabha by Madan Mohan Malviya (1915).
Lord Chelmsford (1916–21)
- Home Rule Movement launched by Tilak and Annie Besant (1916).
- Lucknow Pact between Congress and Muslim League (1916).
- The arrival of Gandhi in India (1915).
- Champaran Satyagraha (1917).
- Montague’s August Declaration (1917).
- Kheda Satyagraha and Satyagraha at Ahmedabad (1918).
- Government of India Act (1919).
- Repressive Rowlatt Act (1919).
- Jalianwala Bagh Massacre (1919).
- Khilafat Movement (1920–22).
- Non-cooperation Movement (1920–22).
- Saddler Commission (1917) and an Indian Sir S. P. Sinha was appointed Governor of Bengal.
Lord Reading (1921–26)
- Criminal Law Amendment Act and abolition of cotton excise
- Repeal of Press Act of 1910 & Rowlatt Act of 1919
- Violent Moplah rebellion in Kerala (1921)
- Foundation of CPI (1921)
- Chauri Chaura Incident (1922)
- Foundation of Swaraj Party (1923)
- Kakori Train Dacoity (1925)
- Foundation of RSS (1925)
- Murder of Swami Shardhanand (1926).
- Suppressed non-cooperation movement.
Lord Irwin (1926–31)
- Simon Commission announced in 1927.
- Butler Commission (1927); Nehru Report (1928).
- 14 points of Jinnah (1929); Lahore session of Congress and ‘Poorna Swaraj’ declaration (1929).
- Civil Disobedience Movement (1930).
- Dandi march (1930).
- 1st Round Table Conference (1930).
- Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931).
- Martyrdom of Jatin Das (hunger strike).
Lord Willingdon (1931–36)
- 2nd Round Table Conference (1931).
- Civil Disobedience Movement (1932).
- The announcement of MacDonald’s Communal Award (1932).
- 3rd Round Table Conference.
- Foundation of Congress Socialist Party-CSP (1934).
- Government of India Act (1935).
- Burma separated from India (1935).
- All India Kisan Sabha (1936).
- Poona Pact was signed between Ambedkar and Gandhi.
Lord Linlithgow (1936–43)
- First General Election (1936–37).
- Congress ministries in 1937 and Resignation of Congress ministries in 1939.
- ‘Deliverance Day’ by Muslim League in 1939.
- Foundation of Forward Block by S.C. Bose (1939).
- Lahore Resolution (1940); August Offer (1940); Cripps Mission (1942); Quit India Movement (1942) and Outbreak of Second World War in 1939.
Lord Wavell (1943–1947)
- R. Formula 1944; Wavell Plan and Shimla Conference in 1945.
- End of 2nd World War in 1945.
- INA Trials in 1945; Naval mutiny in 1946.
- Cabinet Mission, 1946 and acceptance of its proposals by Congress.
- Direct Action Day by the Muslim League on 16th August 1946 and the first meeting of the constituent assembly was held on Dec. 9, 1946.
Lord Mountbatten (March–August 1947)
- Announced the 3 June 1947 Plan; Introduction of Indian Independence Bill in the House of Commons and passed by the British Parliament on July 4, 1947.
- Appointment of 2 boundary commissions under Sir Cyril Radcliffe.
Governor Generals of Independent India (1947–50)
Lord Mountbatten (1947–48)
- The first Governor-General of free India; Kashmir acceded to India (Oct. 1947); Murder of Gandhi (Jan. 30, 1948).
Rajagopalachari (June 1948–January 25, 1950)
- The last Governor-General of free India; The only Indian Governor-General.