Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India

By Shivank Goel|Updated : September 20th, 2022

Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India are non-judicial bodies that can interpret the law. A quasi-judicial body is a body, such as a tribunal board or an arbitration panel, which can be a public administrative agency as well as a contract- or private law entity and has been given authority and procedures similar to those of a court of law or judge, and which is required to impartially determine the facts and draw conclusions from them in order to serve as the foundation for official action. The legal rights, obligations, or privileges of particular persons may be affected by such acts, which have the power to correct a situation or inflict legal sanctions.

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Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India

A Quasi-Judicial body comprises powers and procedures like a court of law or judge. Some of the significant features of Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India are as follows:

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  • Powers - They have capabilities similar to the law imposing bodies. Their primary role is to impose laws on administrative agencies.
  • Expertise - A judge does not head them; instead, experts in sectors like Economics, Law, Finance, etc., are also included.
  • Purpose - Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India are created for particular reasons; for example, the National river water dispute tribunal was created to award water sharing among disputing states. The Central Administrative Tribunal is made to solve the issues related to civil servants, etc.

Authorities that Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India Possess

The authority of Quasi-Judicial bodies is restricted to certain areas only, which comprises of-

  • Financial markets
  • Public standards
  • Land use and zoning
  • The specific set of regulations of an agency
  • Employment law

List of Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India

Below is the list of Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India;

  • National Human Rights Commission
  • Central Information Commission
  • National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
  • District Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum
  • Appellate Tribunal for Electricity
  • Railway Claims Tribunal
  • Intellectual Property Appellate Tribunal
  • Banking Ombudsman
  • Income tax Ombudsman
  • State Sales tax Appellate Tribunal

There are various advantages of setting up Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India - they have low-cost compared to the conventional judicial process, straightforward procedures, and experts in the panel who can understand the technicalities of the case easily and take the required actions quickly. Plus, it helps reduce the workload of the Judiciary.

Types of Government Bodies in India

India comprises multiple types of government bodies. The major ones are Constitutional bodies, Statutory bodies, Executive bodies, and Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India. Let us understand them in detail.

  • Constitutional Bodies: Constitutional bodies get their power and control from the Indian Constitution. They have dedicated articles in the Constitution of India, and any amendments in the functioning of constitution bodies will need a constitutional change. Some well-known constitutional bodies are the UPSC, the Finance Commission, the CAG, etc.
  • Statutory Bodies: They are created by the acts that State Legislatures and Parliament can pass. Statutory Bodies get power from a statute such as National Human Rights Commission, National Investigation Agency, National Law Commission, Armed Forces Tribunal, etc.
  • Regulatory Bodies: They are public or government agencies liable for employing sovereign authority over a particular area of human activity in a supervisory capacity. They are Non-Constitutional bodies because they are not cited anywhere in the Constitution of India. But this does not mean they are not necessary; in fact, regulatory bodies are created by passing an act of parliament. They majorly execute security and norms.
  • Executive Bodies: Executive bodies are also called Non-Constitutional bodies because they are not mentioned in the Constitution of India. The Act of Parliament does not create executive bodies; instead, they are formed by the government's action only, so they are called Non-Statutory bodies.

There are majorly two judicial bodies: the Supreme Court of India and the High Court of India. They are the courts in India, and their main motive is to ensure righteousness by obeying the law.

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FAQs on Quasi Judicial Body

  • A person or entity with authority comparable to that of a court of law is referred to as a quasi-judicial body.

    • They have the authority to render judgement and choose the appropriate punishment for those who commit crimes.
    • They differ from judicial institutions in that they have a smaller scope than a court.
    • If the court deems it essential, they may be established on a case that is currently before the court, and the court retains the ability to designate the members of such a group.
    • They could function as arbitrators or as tribunals for a particular field.
  • The significant issues with the Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India are funding false cases and many burdens. These are big issues in the field but these bodies function as a great helping hand to the Judiciary.

  • Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India have adjusting powers in:

    • Conduct rules
    • Trust in money matters
    • Breach of Discipline
  • The list of the Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India is as follows:

    • SEBI
    • National Green Tribunal
    • National Human Rights Commission
    • Central Information Commission
    • Tribunal
  • The significant difference between the Judicial and Quasi-Judicial Bodies in India is that the former creates law, whereas the latter is based on existing laws.

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