As we all know the proper education process only takes place where a proper curriculum exists or is to be followed. A curriculum is a basic structure of the education process. A proper curriculum covers both the scholastic and co-scholastic areas of child development in the teaching-learning process.
Meaning of curriculum:
The word curriculum is derived from the Latin word currere which means to run or to proceed and the meaning of Curriculum is "a race" or "the course of a race. “
Definition of curriculum:
According to Kerr, "All the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside of school."
Principles of curriculum:
Following are the principles of curriculum:
1. The curriculum should be comprehensive that should fulfil the needs and total development of the child.
2. An ideal curriculum should allow an individual to prepare for future life.
3. A curriculum should be flexible that should satisfy the changing needs of the pupils.
4. A curriculum should be child-centred should take into consideration the needs, interests, capacities, attitudes, aptitudes of the students.
6. A curriculum should be made in such a way that should be suited to the mental-physical development of the children.
Types of curriculum:
There are three types of curriculum:
1. Explicit (stated curriculum): Explicit curriculum refers to the curriculum that is designed by teachers or the school boards. This plan is set by the teacher for his class whether they know it or not. For example topics by the class, documents needed during lesson plans such as textbooks, films, web etc.
2. Hidden (unofficial curriculum): It is usually an unwritten, unofficially or unplanned form of curriculum. This is the learning which a student takes from his/her teachers. For example, the transmission of norms, values, and beliefs is transferred within the classroom and the social environment. This curriculum is considered the biggest side effect of schooling.
3. Absent or null (excluded curriculum): This curriculum refers to the content that is not taught. In a null curriculum, a teacher does not teach a particular content by giving them the message that these elements are not important in the educational experience or in society.
There are four types of curriculum approaches:
1. Behavioral Approach: According to this approach a blueprint is prepared in which goals and objectives are specified and the content and activities are matched with the learning objectives. In schools, the behavioural approach begins with setting the educational plans related to goals and objectives and ends with the change in behaviour that measures the accomplishments.
2. Managerial approach: Under this approach, the curriculum is made by the school’s administration. The curriculum manager looks upon the curriculum, makes changes and innovates just like the administration of resources and restructuring of schools. In this curriculum less, importance is given to the content in comparison to the organisation.
3. System approach: In this approach, the parts of the total district or school are examined in terms of how they relate to each other. The system approach is based upon the system theory of education in which equal importance is given to administration, counselling, curriculum, instruction and administration.
4. Humanistic Approach: This approach is based upon the progressive philosophy and it is a child-centred approach. It focuses on the overall development of the child. This approach considers the planned curriculum as well as the informal or hidden curriculum.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2||Arihant Experts|
|2.||CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2||By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)|
|3.||Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education||Mangal S.K|
Note: All the study notes are available in Hindi as well as the English language. Click on A/अ to change the language.
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