What is Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups?
Go through the basic highlights of PVTGS to understand the topic better.
PVTG Full Form
Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups
PVTG Full Form in Hindi
असुरक्षित जनजातीय समूह
Total PVTG in India
75 PVTGS in India across 15 States+UTs
PVTG Comes Under Which Ministry
Ministry of Tribal Affairs
PVTG Full Form
PVTG stands for Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups. The PVTG, as a distinct category, was born out of the observation of the Dhebar Commission in 1973.
- This tribal group was identified as the most vulnerable inhabitants residing in the less developed regions of India.
- The tribes identified as PVTG show the following salient features:
- Homogenous in an entirety
- Constitutes a small population
- Physically isolated
- Specific language script is not available in written form
- Deprived of the latest developments and are not prone to changes
- They reside in different topographies such as hills, plains, forests or any remote area.
- According to the estimates and information provided by the 2001 census, there are 12 PVTGs that have a population of more than 50,000 and the other groups of PVTG have a population of 1000 or less than it.
- Saharityas are a group among the PVTGs that represents the highest population whereas Sentinelets and Andamanese are very less populated.
PVTGs in India
The PVTGs have been majorly identified in 18 states and the union territory of Andaman & Nicobar Islands. They are largely distributed in different parts of India as per the census data.
PVTG Distribution in India
Name of the States/Union Territories
Andhra Pradesh and Telangana
Bodo Gadaba, Bodo Poroja, Chenchu, Dongria Khond, Gutob Gadaba, Khond Poroja, Kolam, Kondareddis, Konda Savaras, Parengi Poroja, Thoti.
PVTG in Jharkhand & Bihar
Asurs, Birhor, Birja, Hill Kharia, Konvas, Mal Paharia, Savar
Kathodi, Kohvalia, Padhar, Siddi, Kolgha
Jenu Kuruba, Koraga
Cholanaikayan, Kadar, Kattunayakan, Kurumbas, Koraga
Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh
Abujh Macias, Baigas, Bharias, Hill Korbas, Kamars, Saharias, Birhor
Katkaria, Kolam, Maria Gond
PVTG in Odisha
Birhor, Bondo, Didayi, Dongria-Khond, Juangs, Kharias, Lodhas, Mankidias, Paudi Bhuyans, Lanjia Sauras
Kattunayakans, Kotas, Kurumbas, Irulas, Paniyans, Todas
Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand
PVTG in Andaman and Nicobar
Great Andamanese, Jarawas, Onges, Sentinelese, Shorn Pens
PVTG Criteria: Livelihoods
- The livelihood options for PVTGs cover a wide range that entails food gathering, collection of non-timber forest produce, hunting, shifting cultivation, livestock farming, and artisan works.
- The non-timber forest produce includes the products like honey, gum, amla, bamboo, shrubs, fuelwood, dry leaves, nuts, sprouts, wax, medicinal plants, roots, and tubers.
- The major objective behind the collection of forest products is consumption.
- The extra amount of products that are left after consumption are sold to the middlemen. The PVTGs are victims of exploitation by the middlemen.
- The prominent changes in the environment that have a huge impact on the forests accompanied by the legislation regarding the conservation of forests are serious challenges to the interests of the PVTGs.
Common Health issues found in PVTGs
- There exist improper conditions of health among the PVTGs which are backed by the reasons such as extreme poverty, lack of access to healthcare facilities, low literacy rates, economic backwardness, and unsafe drinking water, malnutrition, poor sanitation and so on.
- The diseases that are commonly found among PVTGs are
- Respiratory diseases
- Gastro-intestinal infections
- Skin infections
This scheme for PVTG was introduced by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs as a developmental intervention by the government.
- It intends to provide comprehensive support for the socio-economic betterment of primitive tribal groups.
- Under this scheme, facilities are provided in the areas of housing, distribution of land, construction of roads, agricultural development, facilities for livestock rearing, provisions of energy security, and social security.
- Financial assistance is extended to protect the interests of these tribal groups and facilitate their survival.
- A development plan for the time span of five years is prepared under the scheme which is referred to as the Conservation-cum-Development (CCD) plan.
- An expert committee appointed by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs approves the CCD plan.
- The CCD plan identifies a particular territory of the PVTGs and prepares a financial plan to implement the welfare programs.
- The progress made by the scheme is assessed by the concerned Ministry and NITI Aayog.
We are the social inhabitants of an era wherein the concepts of an inclusive society and sustainable developments are enormously expounded and the foundational idea of every policy initiative echoes these concepts. It gathers huge significance when the efforts of the government are directed towards the principles of inclusion to protect the rights, interests, and culture of the primitive tribal population.
The active participation of people, organizations, healthcare workers, and other stakeholders is necessitated for the overall development of the tribal population which forms an integral part of India’s composite culture. This will lead the nation to evolve as a civilized, inclusive, and equitable society.
PVTG: Evolution of the Name
- The Dhebar Commission observed that there is a predominance of social inequalities within the Scheduled Tribes.
- The Commission pointed out that there are groups of tribal origin that are completely detached from the social security benefits, access to education, and healthcare services.
- The need to have a sub-category within the Scheduled Tribes was realized so that the welfare programs can reach out to them.
- This sub-category was called the “Primitive Tribal Group”.
- The name was changed to Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups in 2006 by the government.
PVTG: Reproductive Rights
- It was reported that the PVTGs were not allowed to use contraceptives till 2018 due to their declining and stagnant population.
- A Public Interest Litigation was filed in the High Court of Chhattisgarh which questioned the actions of the government in depriving the tribal groups of their reproductive rights.
- This was particularly concerned with the Baigas of Chhattisgarh.
- The court ruled that there is a violation of the Right to Privacy under Article 21 of the Constitution.
- As a result, the tribal group has conferred the right to use contraceptives.
PVTG UPSC Notes
This article provides precise information about the PVTG keeping in alignment with the UPSC Syllabus. The topic of PVTG finds relevance in the Social Justice segment under both the UPSC Prelims Syllabus and UPSC Mains Syllabus. Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group UPSC Notes would be helpful for UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains exam. Candidates must bookmark this page or keep the PDF file we have provided below to cover this topic efficiently.
Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group UPSC Notes PDF
Aspirants can download the PVTG UPSC Notes directly from the link given below. The PDF file would save the candidates from the effort of visiting the page again and again.