Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs in India): UPSC Notes PDF

By K Balaji|Updated : November 24th, 2022

PVTG or the Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups are identified by the Government of India as the primitive group of tribals for the convenience of delivering the services through different policies and interventions. The PVTGs in India were first identified by the Dhebar Commission as a crucial finding in its report that confirmed the existence of a sub-category within the scheduled tribes.

The Indian subcontinent harbors a plethora of tribal groups that narrate the tales of our rich and diverse ethnicity. About 8.6% of the total population in India represents the tribal population. It becomes the moral responsibility of the government to protect the interests of the most vulnerable tribal groups who are living without social security benefits.

Table of Content

What is Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups?

Go through the basic highlights of PVTGS to understand the topic better.



PVTG Full Form

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups

PVTG Full Form in Hindi

असुरक्षित जनजातीय समूह

Total PVTG in India

75 PVTGS in India across 15 States+UTs

PVTG Comes Under Which Ministry

Ministry of Tribal Affairs

PVTG Full Form

PVTG stands for Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups. The PVTG, as a distinct category, was born out of the observation of the Dhebar Commission in 1973.

  • This tribal group was identified as the most vulnerable inhabitants residing in the less developed regions of India.
  • The tribes identified as PVTG show the following salient features:
    • Homogenous in an entirety
    • Constitutes a small population
    • Physically isolated
    • Specific language script is not available in written form
    • Deprived of the latest developments and are not prone to changes
  • They reside in different topographies such as hills, plains, forests or any remote area.
  • According to the estimates and information provided by the 2001 census, there are 12 PVTGs that have a population of more than 50,000 and the other groups of PVTG have a population of 1000 or less than it.
  • Saharityas are a group among the PVTGs that represents the highest population whereas Sentinelets and Andamanese are very less populated.

PVTGs in India

The PVTGs have been majorly identified in 18 states and the union territory of Andaman & Nicobar Islands. They are largely distributed in different parts of India as per the census data.

PVTG Distribution in India

Name of the States/Union Territories

PVTGs Tribes

Andhra Pradesh and Telangana

Bodo Gadaba, Bodo Poroja, Chenchu, Dongria Khond, Gutob Gadaba, Khond Poroja, Kolam, Kondareddis, Konda Savaras, Parengi Poroja, Thoti.

PVTG in Jharkhand & Bihar

Asurs, Birhor, Birja, Hill Kharia, Konvas, Mal Paharia, Savar


Kathodi, Kohvalia, Padhar, Siddi, Kolgha


Jenu Kuruba, Koraga


Cholanaikayan, Kadar, Kattunayakan, Kurumbas, Koraga

Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh

Abujh Macias, Baigas, Bharias, Hill Korbas, Kamars, Saharias, Birhor


Katkaria, Kolam, Maria Gond


Marram Nagas

PVTG in Odisha

Birhor, Bondo, Didayi, Dongria-Khond, Juangs, Kharias, Lodhas, Mankidias, Paudi Bhuyans, Lanjia Sauras



Tamil Nadu

Kattunayakans, Kotas, Kurumbas, Irulas, Paniyans, Todas



Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand

Buxas, Rajis

PVTG in Andaman and Nicobar

Great Andamanese, Jarawas, Onges, Sentinelese, Shorn Pens

PVTG Criteria: Livelihoods

  • The livelihood options for PVTGs cover a wide range that entails food gathering, collection of non-timber forest produce, hunting, shifting cultivation, livestock farming, and artisan works.
  • The non-timber forest produce includes the products like honey, gum, amla, bamboo, shrubs, fuelwood, dry leaves, nuts, sprouts, wax, medicinal plants, roots, and tubers.
  • The major objective behind the collection of forest products is consumption.
  • The extra amount of products that are left after consumption are sold to the middlemen. The PVTGs are victims of exploitation by the middlemen.
  • The prominent changes in the environment that have a huge impact on the forests accompanied by the legislation regarding the conservation of forests are serious challenges to the interests of the PVTGs.

Common Health issues found in PVTGs

  • There exist improper conditions of health among the PVTGs which are backed by the reasons such as extreme poverty, lack of access to healthcare facilities, low literacy rates, economic backwardness, and unsafe drinking water, malnutrition, poor sanitation and so on.
  • The diseases that are commonly found among PVTGs are
    • Anaemia
    • Respiratory diseases
    • Malaria
    • Gastro-intestinal infections
    • Skin infections

PVTG Scheme

This scheme for PVTG was introduced by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs as a developmental intervention by the government.

  • It intends to provide comprehensive support for the socio-economic betterment of primitive tribal groups.
  • Under this scheme, facilities are provided in the areas of housing, distribution of land, construction of roads, agricultural development, facilities for livestock rearing, provisions of energy security, and social security.
  • Financial assistance is extended to protect the interests of these tribal groups and facilitate their survival.
  • A development plan for the time span of five years is prepared under the scheme which is referred to as the Conservation-cum-Development (CCD) plan.
  • An expert committee appointed by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs approves the CCD plan.
  • The CCD plan identifies a particular territory of the PVTGs and prepares a financial plan to implement the welfare programs.
  • The progress made by the scheme is assessed by the concerned Ministry and NITI Aayog.

We are the social inhabitants of an era wherein the concepts of an inclusive society and sustainable developments are enormously expounded and the foundational idea of every policy initiative echoes these concepts. It gathers huge significance when the efforts of the government are directed towards the principles of inclusion to protect the rights, interests, and culture of the primitive tribal population.

The active participation of people, organizations, healthcare workers, and other stakeholders is necessitated for the overall development of the tribal population which forms an integral part of India’s composite culture. This will lead the nation to evolve as a civilized, inclusive, and equitable society.

PVTG: Evolution of the Name

  • The Dhebar Commission observed that there is a predominance of social inequalities within the Scheduled Tribes.
  • The Commission pointed out that there are groups of tribal origin that are completely detached from the social security benefits, access to education, and healthcare services.
  • The need to have a sub-category within the Scheduled Tribes was realized so that the welfare programs can reach out to them.
  • This sub-category was called the “Primitive Tribal Group”.
  • The name was changed to Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups in 2006 by the government.

PVTG: Reproductive Rights

  • It was reported that the PVTGs were not allowed to use contraceptives till 2018 due to their declining and stagnant population.
  • A Public Interest Litigation was filed in the High Court of Chhattisgarh which questioned the actions of the government in depriving the tribal groups of their reproductive rights.
  • This was particularly concerned with the Baigas of Chhattisgarh.
  • The court ruled that there is a violation of the Right to Privacy under Article 21 of the Constitution.
  • As a result, the tribal group has conferred the right to use contraceptives.


This article provides precise information about the PVTG keeping in alignment with the UPSC Syllabus. The topic of PVTG finds relevance in the Social Justice segment under both the UPSC Prelims Syllabus and UPSC Mains Syllabus. Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group UPSC Notes would be helpful for UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains exam. Candidates must bookmark this page or keep the PDF file we have provided below to cover this topic efficiently.

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group UPSC Notes PDF

Aspirants can download the PVTG UPSC Notes directly from the link given below. The PDF file would save the candidates from the effort of visiting the page again and again.

Download PVTG UPSC Notes

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FAQs on Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups PVTGs

  • PVTG stands for Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups

    • In order to identify the PVTG, the Government of India obeys certain criteria of assessment. 
    • These criteria include
    • Groups using agricultural technology of the primitive period with any modern methods and devices.
    • The predominance of low levels of literacy
    • Existence of backwardness in terms of economic status
    • Threatened with declining or stagnant population.
  • There are 75 PVTGs residing in different parts of India

  • Odisha records the highest number of PVTGs in the country.

  • The Ministry of Tribal Affairs, the Government of India had launched a welfare scheme by the name of ‘Development of PVTGs’ that aimed at the socio-economic upliftment of the communities. This scheme operated as a Central Sector Scheme wherein 100% funding is provided by the central government.

  • To download the PVTGs Notes UPSC PDF, you can directly get it from here. Other than this, you can also refer to the article given above.

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