Paper-1 Mini-Series Environment Study Notes on Initiatives by Govt. to reduce pollution 

By Sakshi Ojha|Updated : June 14th, 2021


The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has taken several positive steps to minimize pollution of the environment, as mentioned in the UGC NET People And Environment Notes.

Important Environmental Laws:

The Water (Pollution Control) Act:

  • It was promulgated in 1974 to prevent and control water pollution and maintain or restore water sanitation in the country.
  • The bill was amended in 1988.

The Air (Pollution Prevention and Control) Act:

  • It was promulgated in 1981 and revised in 1987 to predict, control, and reduce air pollution in India. 

The 2002 Biodiversity Act:

  • It was born out of India’s attempt to achieve the goals set by the 1992 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which recognizes the sovereignty of countries to use their own biological resources. 

The National Green Tribunal:

  • It was established on October 18, 2010, in accordance with the 2010 National Green Court Law. The purpose is to effectively and quickly resolve cases related to environmental protection and the protection of forests and other natural resources, including the application and application of any legal rights. Relief and compensation are given to the environment, damages to people and property, and matters related to or incidental to them. It is a professional institution with the necessary experience in handling environmental disputes involving multi-disciplinary issues.

Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA):

  • CAMPA was established to compensate for the loss of forest area and to maintain sustainability. It established National Compensatory Afforestation Fund under and a State Compensatory Afforestation Fund in each state. 10% of the fund will go to the National Fund and the rest 90 % will go to State Fund.
  • A company that wants to divert forest land must provide alternative land to take up compensatory afforestation. Thereafter, the company have to pay to plant new trees in the alternative land. The act also seeks to establish National and State Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authorities to manage the funds.

Namami Gange Programme:

  • National Mission of Clean Ganga is implementing this programme.
  • It consists of National Ganga Council (NGC) headed by Prime Minister.
  • NGC was established in October 2016.
  • NGC will consist of five Ganga basin chief ministers -
  • Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh (UP), Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.
  • It will also have many Union ministers.
  • NGC will meet once every year.

Main Pillars of the Namami Gange Programme are:

  1. Sewerage Treatment Infrastructure
  2. River-Surface Cleaning
  3. Afforestation
  4. Industrial Effluent Monitoring
  5. River-Front Development
  6. Bio-Diversity
  7. Public Awareness
  8. Ganga Gram

Environment Impact Assessment:

  • It is statutorily backed by the Environment Protection Act of 1986.
  • EIA objective is to: Identify the environmental, social and economic impacts of a project prior to making a decision on its implementation.
  • It aims to mitigate the harmful impacts and maximizes the beneficial effect.

Other Initiatives :

  • Cess Act, 1977
  • Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
  • Public Liability Insurance Act, 1981
  • National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995
  • National Environmental Appellate Authority Act, 1997

We hope you all have understood the important points related to Initiatives taken by the Govt. to eliminate pollution in this part of the 'Mini Series'. For the next Mini-Series, you can drop your suggestions in the comment box.

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Sakshi OjhaSakshi OjhaMember since Mar 2021
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Suman Kadwasra
Please es notes ki hindi dal dijiye mam
V K Yadav

V K YadavJun 15, 2021

Please provide notes in hindi also....

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