Non-Newtonian fluid’s viscosity is usually dependent on shear rate or shear rate history, or their viscosity is independent of shear rate but nevertheless exhibits normal stress differences or other Non-Newtonian behavior. The relationship between shear stress and shear rate in a non-Newtonian fluid is different from the Newtonian fluid.
Many salt solutions and molten polymers, as well as many everyday items including custard, toothpaste, starch suspensions, corn starch, paint, blood, melted butter, and shampoo, are Non-Newtonian fluids.
Non-Newtonian Fluid Definition
Non-Newtonian fluid is one that does not obey Newton's viscosity law, which states that viscosity should remain constant regardless of stress. Unlike Newtonian fluid, when forced, the viscosity and fluid flow of non-Newtonian fluids can change from liquid to solid. Ketchup, for example, is a non-Newtonian fluid because it becomes runnier when shaken.
Types of Non-Newtonian Fluid
A non-Newtonian fluid has flow (viscosity) qualities that are different from Newtonian fluids. Non-Newtonian fluids are classified into four categories, as shown in the table below.
Types of Non-Newtonian Fluid
Examples of Non-Newtonian Fluid
Dilatant (Shear Thickening)
Viscosity increases with increased stress.
Suspensions of cornstarch in water.
Pseudoplastic (Shear Thinning)
Viscosity decreases with increased stress.
ketchup, whipped cream, and nail polish.
Viscosity reduces with time as a result of stress.
Peanut butter, yogurt, and hydrogenated castor oil.
Viscosity rises over time as a result of stress.
gypsum paste, synovial fluid, and printer ink.
Shear Thickening Fluid (Dilatant)
When the shear rate is increased, the viscosity of a shear thickening fluid, or dilatant fluid, appears to increase. Corn starch suspended in water is a good example: it looks milky when agitated slowly, but it feels like an extremely viscous liquid when stirred violently.
Shear Thinning Fluid (Pseudoplastic)
Wall paint is an example of a shear-thinning fluid or pseudoplastic fluid: When applying paint to a surface, it should flow easily off the brush but not drip excessively. All thixotropic fluids are extremely shear thinning, however, they are time-dependent, whereas colloidal "shear thinning" fluids react instantly to changes in shear rate.
When exposed to a steep change in shear rate, a thixotropic fluid needs a finite amount of time to reach equilibrium viscosity. Pseudoplastic fluids are thixotropic fluids that revert to a gel form nearly rapidly, such as ketchup.
The strain rate of some fluids is a function of time. Rheopectic fluids are those that require a gradually increasing shear stress to maintain a constant strain rate.
Non-Newtonian Fluid Example
Understanding the behavior of non-Newtonian fluids is crucial for a number of reasons: such as disaster prevention and safety. Non-Newtonian flows can be found in many common substances.The example of non newtonian fluid is given below:
- Cosmetics, toothpaste, and soap solutions
- Butter, cheese, jam, mayonnaise, soup, taffy, and yogurt are some examples of foods.
- Magma, lava, gums, honey, and extracts like vanilla extract are all examples of natural substances.
- Blood, saliva, sperm, mucus, and synovial fluid are examples of biological fluids.
- Slurries, such as cement slurry and paper pulp, emulsions, such as mayonnaise, and various dispersions are all examples of slurries.
|Important Topics for Gate Exam|
|Induction Motor||Inductors in Parallel|
|Kinematic Pair||Kirchhoff's Law|
|Laplace Transform||Maximum Shear Stress Theory|
|Modulus of Elasticity||Neutral Axis|
|Newtonian Fluids||Newtonian Mechanics|