Nehru Report 1928: Recommendations, Jinnah 14 Points, Nehru Report UPSC

By K Balaji|Updated : October 21st, 2022

The main goal of the Nehru Report was to grant India dominion status inside the British Commonwealth. The main parts of the Nehru Report are as follows:

  1. Chart of Rights
  2. Granting men and women in society equal rights
  3. The establishment of a federal system of government where the residual powers will be held by the centre.
  4. Proposal to establish the Supreme Court.

A committee headed by Pandit Motilal Nehru compiled the Motilal Nehru report 1928. After asking Indian politicians to prepare a constitution for the nation, Lord Birkenhead, the secretary of state for India, finally established this committee. Congress debated the report, which demanded that India be awarded Dominion Status.

The Nehru Report is studied in the syllabus of the modern Indian history of UPSC Syllabus. These notes would be helpful for various other competitive exams, including Bank PO, SSC, state civil service exams, and others.

Table of Content

What is Nehru Report?

The Nehru Report 1928 suggested new status for India as a sole dominion under the British administration only. Additionally, a central government was to be established for the Indian constitution, and joint elections with seats designated for minorities were to be designed.

The Nehru report was created by the All Parties Conference. The president was Motilal Nehru, and the secretary was Jawaharlal Nehru, his son. There were nine further members of the committee.

History of Nehru Report 1928

The history of the Nehru report is traced back to the time when the British government established the Simon Commission in November 1927 to examine the functioning of the Indian government. Additionally, he was tasked with providing constitutional amendments for India.

Nehru Report UPSC PDF

Numerous politicians rebelled against the Simon Commission because there were no Indian members of the commission.

  • Indians, particularly the Congress Party, fiercely opposed the Simon Commission when it visited India in 1928 since there wasn't a solitary Indian on the commission.
  • Lord Birkenhead, the Secretary of State for India, tacitly implied that Indians were unable to forge a consensus and design a constitution by challenging Indian leaders to do so.
  • The political leaders agreed to take on this problem, and an All-Party Conference was organised with the responsibility of creating a constitution assigned to a committee.
  • Motilal Nehru served as the chairman of this committee, and Jawaharlal Nehru served as the secretary. Ali Imam, Tej Bahadur Sapru, Mangal Singh, M. S. Aney, Subhas Chandra Bose, Shuaib Qureshi, and G. R. Pradhan were additional members.
  • The Nehru Committee Report, also known as the Nehru Report was the name given to the committee's new constitution. On August 28, 1928, the report was presented during the all-party conference's Lucknow session.
  • This was the Indian people's first significant attempt at drafting their own constitution.
  • The British left the commission unchanged even after the uprising. Instead, they requested that the Indians drafted the constitution on their own. '...let the Indians establish a constitution which carries behind it a fair degree of broad agreement among the great peoples of India,' said Lord Birkenhead, Secretary of State for India.
  • The Nehru report 1928 is the outcome of many nationalists accepting this challenge. In response to the Simon Commission, the Indian National Congress took the following two actions:
  • Congress did not assist the Commission in any way.
  • The All Parties Conference was established by Congress to design the Indian Constitution.

Nehru Report Recommendations

A number of issues were raised in the Nehru Report 1928, like 19 essential rights, including the ability to vote for men and women over 21 without being barred. Equal citizenship rights for men and women. no official religion. No community has its own electorate. Following are some important Nehru Report recommendations in detail:

  • To have the status of dominion status for India within the British Commonwealth, similar to Canada, Australia, etc. This issue caused friction with the younger generation of politicians, which favoured total independence and included Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose.
  • There are 19 important rights, including the ability to vote for men and women over 21 without being barred.
  • The Nehru report recommended providing equal citizenship rights for men and women.
  • No official religion.
  • No community has its own electorate. Minority seats were reserved, as stated. It stipulated that seats for Muslims would be reserved in the centre and in regions where they were a minority, but not in Bengal or Punjab. The NWFP, also allowed for non-Muslim reservations.
  • A centralized form of governance leaves the centre with some authority. A bicameral legislature would be located in the middle. The legislature would be the ministry's boss.
  • The constitutional ruler of India will be the governor-general. He would be chosen by the British king or queen.
  • A suggestion was added in the Nehru report to establish a Supreme Court.
  • The provinces would be divided according to language.
  • Indian would be the official language, and it would be written in Devanagari (Sanskrit/Hindi), Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Bengali, Marathi, or Gujarati. English usage is authorised.

Muslim League Response to Nehru Report

Community representation was a contentious topic. Numerous Muslim leaders met Motilal Nehru in Delhi in December 1927 and made a few recommendations for the Nehru report. At its Madras session, Congress approved them. These so-called "Delhi Proposals" were-

  • The 1916 Congress-Muslim League accord gave the Muslim minority separate electorates and importance, but the Nehru Report rejected these provisions. Muslims realised that they would always be a minority at the Centre even though they would be the majority in India's North-East and North-West regions, where they would dominate the regional legislature.
  • They thus asked that residuary powers be transferred to the provinces, which was against the recommendations of the Nehru Report. Muslims should make up at least 13 of the Central Legislature.
  • Separate electorates should be offered, and communal group participation should persist. If a territorial distribution is taking place, it shouldn't negatively affect the Muslims living in the provinces of Punjab, and Bengal.
  • If the bill is opposed by three-fourths of the members, no decision from the legislature must be produced. It is necessary to separate Sindh from Bombay.
  • Balochistan will undergo reform. All Muslims should receive a fair share of all services.
  • The Constitution should pay significant attention to the preservation of the Muslim religion, culture, education, charitable organisations, and personal laws.
  • All Muslims are represented by one-third in both the national and provincial ministries. If amendments to the Constitution are required, their approval by the provinces is required.

Jinnah 14 Points

The recommendations provided by the Nehru report were rejected outright by Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Muslim League. On the country, he provided ‘Jinnah 14 points’ on behalf of the Muslim League committee.

  1. The federal government with some remaining provincial authority.
  2. Provincial independence.
  3. There can be no constitutional amendment without state approval.
  4. Without lowering the Muslim majority in a province to equality or minorities, there should be enough Muslim representation in all legislatures and political bodies.
  5. Muslims are adequately represented in the workforce and in self-governing entities.
  6. Muslims make up a third of the Central Legislature's membership.
  7. Muslims make up 1/3 of the state and federal cabinets.
  8. Distinct electorates.
  9. No law in any legislature may be approved if it is opposed by 3/4 of the minority community's members.
  10. Any redistribution of territory that does not impact Bengal's, Punjab's, or the NWFP's Muslim majority.
  11. Split between Sindh and the Bombay Presidency.
  12. Constitutional changes in Baluchistan and the NWFP.
  13. Complete religious freedom for all groups.
  14. Safeguarding Muslims' liberties to their religion, culture, education, and language.

Nehru Report UPSC

The Nehru Report UPSC topic is part of Modern Indian History. In the UPSC Mains paper, the direct question can be asked on the Nehru Report. For that, the aspirants should have complete knowledge of the report and the recommendations provided by it. To know more about this topic and other relevant topics of modern Indian history, visit the UPSC history syllabus and study material provided by us on our website.

Nehru Report UPSC Questions

The Nehru Report UPSC Questions are likely to appear in the IAS exam. The best possible method to prepare for questions of modern Indian history is referring to the previous years' published question papers. But here we are providing you with two sample questions for reference purposes.

Q1. Leading the first significant Indian initiative to establish an Indian Constitution were

  1. Motilal Nehru
  2. Jawaharlal Nehru
  3. S.C. Bose
  4. Rash Behari Ghose

Answer- Option A

Q2. The primary suggestions made in the Nehru report were:

  1. Dominant Position
  2. Fundamental Rights
  3. Provinces with a Language
  4. All the aforementioned

Answer: Option D

Important Notes for UPSC
ADM Jabalpur CaseRound Table Conference
Narmada Bachao AndolanRussian Revolution
Subhas Chandra BosePressure Belts of Earth

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FAQs on Nehru Report

  • The Nehru Committee Report 1928 was a memo to support an appeal for a new provincial autonomy and a federal system of administration for the Indian constitution (accepted on August 28, 1928). Additionally, it suggested that seats be reserved for minorities in the legislatures under the Joint Electorates.

  • Following were the Nehru Report points-

    • Dominion status would be granted to India. Within the British Commonwealth, this entails independence.
    • India will be a federation with a bicameral legislature at the centre, and the legislature will be in charge of the ministries.
    • The constitutional head of India would be the Governor General, who would have the same authority as the British Crown.
    • There won't be a distinct electorate.
    • Citizenship and fundamental rights were also defined in the draft report.
  • Nehru report covered a lot of ground, but one of the main themes was that India would receive Dominion status. Within the British Commonwealth, this entails independence. India will be a federation with a bicameral legislature at the centre, and the legislature will be in charge of the ministries.

  • The Nehru Report recommended that the fundamental rights of the Indian people not be infringed upon. The American Bill of Rights served as an inspiration for the reports, which formed the groundwork for the Indian Constitution's Fundamental Rights clause.

  • Muslim political groups in Bengal were very troubled by the Nehru report because they perceived a challenge to Hindu domination. Separate electorates had grown to be seen as essential to Muslim politics in Bengal, and when it was suddenly rejected, Hindus saw it as a violation of the Muslim cause.

  • The All India Muslim League rejected the Nehru report. Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the head of the Muslim League, criticised the Nehru Report for being undemocratic and conservative, as well as harmful to the interests of minorities in general and Muslims in particular. Saradar Karak Singh, the president of the Central Sikh League, also disagreed. However, the study was backed by other well-known Muslim figures such as Hakim Ajmal Khan, Dr. M.A. Ansari, and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.

  • Yes. According to the 1928 Motilal Nehru Report, seats should only be set aside for Muslims in provinces where they make up a minority. The study suggested that distinct electorates be abolished, that seats be reserved in Bengal and Punjab for Muslim majorities, and that the weighting of Muslim minorities is rejected. The Lucknow Pact was reversed in this situation.

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