Name the Glands Associated With the Human Digestive System and Mention Their Secretion and Function

By K Balaji|Updated : November 9th, 2022

The glands associated with the human digestive system are saliva, gastric glands, liver and pancreas. Salivary glands break down starch to maltose, 2-3 litres of gastric juice is released in stomach every day, liver produces bile juice which helps in emulsification and pancreas help in the production of hormones.

Digestive glands:

  • Associated with the human digestive system are digestive glands.
  • These glands release substances that help in food digestion.

Salivary Gland:

  • These glands release saliva, which is a viscous, colourless, and opalescent liquid.
  • To keep it moist, it is distributed in little amounts throughout the buccal cavity.
  • Starch is broken down into maltose in the saliva.
  • Additionally, saliva maintains the health of the mouth and teeth, improves the flavour of food, works as a solvent, heightens taste perception, serves as a lubricant, moistens dry food, and facilitates swallowing.

Stomach:

  • Gastric glands are composed of simple or branched tubular glands.
  • These gastric glands secrete roughly 2-3 litres of gastric juice every day in adults, and both the neurological and hormonal systems control this secretion.
  • On the stomach's wall, there are several gastric glands. There are three primary types of gastric glands in the stomach mucosa.
  • Hydrochloric acid is supplied to the stomach juice by parietal cells. Hydrochloric acid assists in the degradation of proteins by supplying H+, which activates pepsinogen, a precursor to pepsin.
  • Pepsinogen is secreted by the body's gastric glands and the antrum of the stomach. In order for proteins to be finally absorbed in the small intestine, pepsin splits them up into smaller bits known as peptides or amino acids.
  • Mucous cells produce mucin and exude it.

Liver:

  • The liver, which weighs around 1.6 kg and is located on the right side of the upper abdominal cavity just below the diaphragm, is the largest gland in the human body.
  • A larger right lobe and a smaller left lobe with two smaller lobes make up the liver's two lobes. The quadrate lobe and the caudate lobe are located behind the major lobes
  • Under the right lobe is a pear-shaped organ called the gallbladder. The bile juice produced by the liver is stored in the gallbladder.
  • The liver performs a number of significant functions in the human digestive system, including lipogenesis, which is also under its control. Controlling blood sugar levels is the responsibility of the liver.
  • The liver secretes bile, which is what emulsifies substances. The liver converts beta carotene into vitamin A when carotenes, an enzyme, are present.

Pancreas:

  • The pancreas is a yellowish, elongated gland that is located behind the stomach in the curved duodenum.
  • Both exocrine and endocrine functions are performed by the pancreas. It is made up of numerous branching tubules embedded in connective tissue that include nerves, pancreatic ductules, and blood and lymphatic arteries in exocrine tissue known as acini.
  • The acinus secretes an alkaline pancreatic fluid that aids in the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
  • The pancreas performs two key tasks in the human body: it produces hormones and aids in digesting in the digestive tract.
  • Pancreatic juice, which contains digestive enzymes, is secreted by intestinal glands.
  • Numerous microscopic glands can be found in the small intestine's mucosa. They are in two varieties: Lieberkuhn's Crypts secrete mucus and digesting enzymes.
  • These digestive fluids are involved in the digestion of a wide range of foods and contain a variety of enzymes.

Summary:-

Name the Glands Associated With the Human Digestive System and Mention Their Secretion and Function

Salivary, gastric, liver, and pancreatic glands all relate to the human digestive system. Salivary glands convert starch to maltose, the stomach releases two to three litres of gastric juice each day, the liver creates bile juice that aids in emulsification, and the pancreas aid in the creation of hormones.

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