Meaning of Motivation
Motivation is derived from the word 'motive' which means a reason for doing something. Motivation is a factor that stimulates an organism for achieving a particular task. For example: If a person has a goal and for achieving that goal, he puts in all his effort. The driving force that stimulates a person to on that particular task to achieve the goal is known as motivation. Thus, We can say that motivation is the process of activating, maintaining and directing behaviour towards a particular goal, and it is necessary to have a goal here.
Definition of Motivation:
According to Good, “Motivation is the process of arousing, sustaining and regulating activity”
Characteristics of Motivation:
Below are some of the important motivations characteristics:
- Motivation is derived when the need emerges.
- Motivation is a goal-oriented process.
- Motivation is a dynamic process.
- Motivation increases the efficiency of a child.
- Motivation may be positive or negative
- It may be external or internal also.
Types of Motivation:
Motivation is of two types:
- Intrinsic motivation: Intrinsic motivation generates within the behaviour of the individual intrinsically. An intrinsically motivated individual needs no rewards for their encouragement for attaining a particular goal.
- Extrinsic motivation: an individual’s behaviour when driven by external rewards such as money, fame, grades, incentives etc. is known as extrinsic motivation.
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Here are some of the common motivation theories that are important for CTET preparation and other TET exam preparation:
Instinct Theory of Motivation: According to this theory all organism has some innate system that helps an organism to survive and these systems are only driven by their behaviour. For example, the Sucking instinct in newborn babies helps them to obtain nourishment from their mother's breasts.
Incentive theory: This theory states that people are motivated to do things due to external rewards. For example, a person goes to the office for work because in return he gets a monetary reward for each day’s work.
Drive theory: This theory states that an organism is born with certain psychological needs and if these needs are not satisfied, it creates some tension in an organism once these needs are satisfied, the drive gets reduced and the organism returns to a relaxed mode.
Arousal theory of motivation: According to this theory each person has a level of arousal that is right for them and when that arousal levels fall below the personal optimum level then they seek some type of stimulation to raise them.
Humanistic theory of motivation: This theory is propounded by Abraham Maslow. This theory states that there is a hierarchy of needs in each individual. These five needs are
- Physiological needs: psychological needs are the basic needs of the life of an individual like air, water, food, clothing and shelter.
- Safety needs: Safety needs are the needs to be safe from harm these needs include physical, environmental and emotional safety and protection.
- Social needs: Social needs are the needs for love, affection, care, belongingness, friendship etc.
- Esteem needs: Esteem needs are of two kinds: Internal esteem needs self like respect, confidence, competence, achievement and freedom and External esteem needs like recognition, power, status, attention and admiration.
- Self-actualization need: Self-actualization need is a desire of an individual to become what he is capable of becoming. These needs include the need for growth, development and utilization of potential self-fulfilment.
Expectancy theory: This theory is developed by Victor Vroom. This theory states that motivation for any behaviour performed by an individual depends upon the desirability of the outcome. For example, a cricket player wants to win the world cup because he aims to win it.
Learning is the modification of behaviour. It is a continuous process and a permanent change which is acquired through practice. It does not involve change due to illness, boredom, fatigue, maturation etc.
Nature of learning:
- Learning is a goal-oriented activity.
- Learning is a continuous process acquired through practice.
- Learning brings some modification in behaviour.
- Learning is an adjustment to change.
- Learning is an improvement and organizing of experiences.
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Principles of Motivation in Learning:
Check the common principle of motivation in learning here:
- All learning and motivation must have a purpose or goal.
- Learning is a composition of extrinsic as well as intrinsic rewards.
- Learning offers activities that involve high-order thinking.
- Curiosity is one of the important elements of learning.
- Due to motivation in learning students work harder to achieve a particular goal.
- During learning praise and encouragement are the perfect tools to motivate a child.
- Learning guides the student in a specific direction that empowers or increases their confidence in students.
Motivation and Learning:
Motivation has a lot of effect on what a student learns. They are as follows:
- Motivation directs the behaviour of an individual towards a particular goal.
- Motivation enhances the performance of the student in learning.
- Motivation influences the cognitive processes of learning.
- Motivation helps a learner to understand which outcomes are strengthening and which are punishing. Thus, motivation helps in encouraging a child in both the consequences for better results.
- Motivation helps a child to enhance the efficiency of achieving a particular goal in time.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2||Arihant Experts|
|2.||CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2||By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)|
|3.||Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education||Mangal S.K|