1857's Freedom struggle and Uttar Pradesh
- Mangal Pandey (resident of Balia of Uttar Pradesh), 34th Indian Army of Barrackpore, near Calcutta, rebelled on March 29, 1857, and fired on his lieutenant. Mangal Pandey was hanged on April 8, 1857, in Barrackpore.
- On April 24, 1857, the native infantry of Meerut refused to touch the new cartridges, as a result, British officers dismissed Soldiers on 9th May 1857, as a result, on May 10, 1857, the soldiers of the whole camp Rebelled.
- The area most affected by this rebellion of 1857 was Awadh and Bundelkhand.
- In the rebellion of 1857, the rebel soldiers and landowners had established their governments at Aligarh, Bareilly, Lucknow, Kanpur, Allahabad etc.
- The 1857 revolt was extended to small towns and towns like Etawah, Mainpuri, Etah, Mathura, Shahjahanpur, Badayun, Azamgarh, Sitapur, Lakhimpur Kheri, Barabanki, Varanasi, Faizabad, Fatehpur, Hathras etc.
- Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh led the rebellion in Lucknow. Begum made her son Birzis Qadir Nawab of Awadh.
- Lucknow was recaptured by Colin Campbell on March 21, 1858.
- In 1857 AD, Nana Saheb had the right to administer the Kanpur (Bithoor) administration.
- The great warrior Tatya Tope (original name-Ram Chandra) of the rebellion of 1857 AD had frightened the British with his 'Guinimikava tactics' (guerrilla strategy).
- He was arrested on April 7, 1859, and was tried in the Civil Court of Shivpuri and was hanged on 18 April 1859.
- By June 1858, the rebellion in the United Provinces (now U.P.) was completely exhausted.
- On 1 November 1858, Lord Kennen read out the declaration of Queen Victoria in Allahabad.
- In 1858, the Delhi division was separated from the northwestern part of the state and the capital of the state was shifted from Agra to Allahabad.
The modern period of Uttar Pradesh
- In 1861, Shiv Dayal Saha had established Radha Swami Satsanga in Agra.
- Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded the Arya Samaj in Mumbai in
- Bharatendu Harishchandra published Kavi vachan Sudha (1867) and Harishchandra Magazine (1872) from Varanasi.
- The present name of 'Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental School' founded in 1875 by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan in Aligarh is 'Aligarh Muslim University'.
- Sir Syed Ahmed Khan launched the 'Aligarh movement' to improve the status of Muslims.
- Till 1947, 9 sessions of Indian National Congress were held in U.P.
- The most, three sessions of Indian National Congress were held in Allahabad and Lucknow each. Allahabad (1888- President: George Yule. 1892 - W.C: Banerjee. 1910 Chairman - Sir William Wedderburn), Lucknow (1899 AD, President- Romesh Chandra Dutt, 1916 AD, President- Ambika Charan Majumdar. 1936 AD, President - Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru).
- Apart from Allahabad and Lucknow, three other cities of U.P. had the convention of Indian National Congress - In 1905 Banaras (President- Gopal Krishna Gokhale), Kanpur (Chairman – Mrs Sarojini Naidu) in 1925 and Meerut (President-Acharya JB-Kripalani) in 1946.
- In 1916, the session of Congress and Muslim League was held simultaneously in Lucknow. This conference was the famous 'Congress-League Agreement'. This Congress convention was chaired by Ambika Charan Majumdar.
- In November 1928, 'Simon Commission' was boycotted in Lucknow. It was led by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.
- In 1918, Gaurishankar Mishra, Indranarayan Dwivedi and Madan Mohan Malviya formed Kisan Sabha.
- In 1923, Chittaranjan Das and Motilal Nehru founded the Swaraj Party in Allahabad.
- The first conference of the Communist Party of India was held in Kanpur, in December 1925 under the chairmanship of Periyar.
- In United Provinces in the adjoining area of Lucknow, 'Eka Andolan' (1920-22) among farmers was led by a farmer named Madari Pasi.
- On August 8, 1942, the 'Quit India' resolution passed in the All India Congress Convention held in Bombay. In this Gandhiji gave a slogan 'Do or Die'.
- During the Quit India movement, Gandhiji was kept in Aga Khan Palace of Poona and Jawaharlal was held captive at Naini Central Jail of Allahabad.
- On August 16, 1942 masses struggle broke out in favour of 'Quit India Movement’. As a result, under the leadership of Chittu Pandey, a 'National Government' was formed in Ballia.
Change in the structure of the state
- After the independence, on 12 January 1950 United Province was renamed as Uttar Pradesh.
- On November 9, 2000, Uttarakhand state was formed by separating 13 hill districts of the state.
- To this date, Uttar Pradesh has given 8 Prime Ministers to the country.
- After Independence, the first Governor of Uttar Pradesh was Mrs Sarojini Naidu, the first Chief Minister was Govind Ballabh Pant and Purushottam Dass Tandon became the first Speaker of the Assembly.
- Current President Shri Ramnath Kovind is also from Uttar Pradesh.
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